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Aufnahmeverfahren im OECD-Vergleich ...

„Based on a survey of 38 countries and economies, most have some form of selective admission to public tertiary education, at least in some fields or to some institutions. Centralised admission systems into public tertiary institutions are used in one-third of the countries and economies and may be used as a way to limit admissions. Performance assessment of applicants through national/central examinations taken towards the end of upper secondary education is used as a selection test for entry into at least some public institutions in half of the countries. Entrance examinations administered by tertiary institutions are also used in one-third of countries.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „Education Indicators in Focus 63“ (Oktober 2018), S. 2

 

Some countries limit the number of applications or preferences that each student can submit ...

„With centralised systems, some countries limit the number of applications or preferences that each student can submit, or limit the number of offers made to students. While there are no limitations in Greece, Italy and New Zealand, the maximum number of applications ranges from 2 in Brazil to 24 in Turkey and France in 2015. In Chile, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Lithuania, Portugal, Slovenia, Sweden and Turkey, students can submit several applications, but will receive only one offer.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „Education Indicators in Focus 63“ (Oktober 2018), S. 3

 

Niederlande: During grade 8 (Anm.: d. h. im 12. Lebensjahr), all pupils – and their parents – receive what is called 'school advice' ...

Niederlande: „During grade 8 (Anm.: d. h. im 12. Lebensjahr), all pupils – and their parents – receive what is called 'school advice', which is based on the national Cito test score and on the opinion of the teacher. In practice this is not just advice: it has important consequences for the type of school the pupil can be admitted to. The advice takes the form of an official document for the secondary school; it is given during a parent-teacher meeting to discuss the Cito test score and, more generally, the development and attitude of the pupil over the years.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „Catching Up? Country Studies on Intergenerational Mobility and Children of Immigrants“ (2018), S. 102

 

Frankreich: Wer wirklich Karriere machen will ...

Frankreich: „Wer wirklich Karriere machen will, besucht zudem eine der zahlreichen, großenteils privaten Ingenieurschulen und Handelshochschulen oder eine Elitehochschule (grande école) wie die École Normale Supérieure und die École Polytechnique. Um hier aufgenommen zu werden, muss man sogenannte Vorbereitungsklassen (classes préparatoires) durchlaufen, die in einem zweijährigen arbeitsintensiven Paukstudium auf die Aufnahmeprüfung der betreffenden Hochschule vorbereiten.“
Dr. Rainer Bölling, „Hochschulzugang, Kompetenzniveau und Arbeitsmarkt im internationalen Vergleich“. In: Lin-Klitzing u. a., „Leistungsstandards und Leistungsbewertung an Gymnasien und Universitäten“ (2017), S. 149

 

Chinas Differenzierung ab dem Kindergarten ...

„Der Gaokao bestimmt, ob und an welcher Universität studiert werden kann, und ist […] zukunftsentscheidend für chinesische Schulabgängerinnen und -abgänger. Bestimmte obere Mittelschulen sind bekannt dafür, optimal auf die Hochschuleingangsprüfung vorzubereiten; allerdings müssen Jugendliche hervorragende Leistungen in der Eingangsprüfung für die obere Mittelschule (chinesisch zhongkao) erbringen, um an diesen exzellenten Schulen aufgenommen werden zu können. Diese beiden Prüfungen – Gaokao und Zhongkao – setzen einen Abwärtsdruck in Gang, da diese Elite-Mittelschulen renommierte untere Mittelschulen voraussetzen, die wiederum nur aus exzellenten Grundschulen rekrutieren. Für viele Eltern beginnt die Planung der Bildungskarriere ihres Kindes somit mit der Wahl des richtigen Kindergartens, der auf ein durch Leistungs- und Prüfungsdruck geprägtes Schulleben vorbereiten soll.“

Univ.-Prof. Dr. Barbara Schulte, „China“ (2017), S. 10

 

Niederlandes vielfältiges Schulwesen ...

„The Dutch system is segmented, with several different types of schools at every stage after primary, and end-of-sector tests contribute to the decision about where students should be placed in the next stage. However, teachers’ judgements are considered along with performance on the tests in making these decisions. […] In each subject, the leaving exam includes school-based assessments as well as centrally designed standardized test.“

Univ.-Prof. Dr. Daniel Koretz, „The Testing Charade. Pretending to Make Schools Better” (2017), S. 213f

 

Japan: High school admission is typically based on highly competitive entrance examinations ...

Japan: „High school admission is typically based on highly competitive entrance examinations administered by the prefectural or municipal boards of education or directly through private high schools. The three years of junior high school are therefore a particularly important period during pupils’ lives as they determine whether a young person will be able to attend a prestigious upper-secondary school.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „Investing in Youth: Japan“ (2017), S. 111

 

Macao: Schools conduct their own entrance examinations ...

„In Macao (China), although there are no national examinations, schools conduct their own entrance examinations at both the lower and upper secondary levels.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „PISA 2015 Results (Volume II): Policies and Practices for Successful Schools (2016), S. 130

 

Zhong kao, Shanghais rigorose Prüfung am Übergang von der Sekundarstufe I zur Sekundarstufe II ...

„At the end of lower secondary school (ninth grade), all students must take the Lower Secondary School Graduation Examination in Shanghai. The subjects tested include Chinese, math, English, physics, and chemistry. Physical education, lab operations, and moral ethics of students also factor into students’ final exam scores. The exam serves the dual purposes of selection into high schools and providing information on the overall performance of the basic education system. The total score on the exam determines the type of high school in which students will enroll: admission into highly selective comprehensive schools requires outstanding performance on the exam. […] Because of its primary purpose as a mechanism for selection into high school, the zhong kao has become increasingly high stakes for children in Shanghai. The test ultimately determines in which type of high school ninth-grade graduates can enroll.“

Weltbank (Hrsg.), „How Shanghai Does It“ (2016), S. 90f

 

Niederlande: Selection occurs with the advice of the teacher as main determinant ...

Niederlande: „At the end of primary school, around age 12, pupils choose one of three options: pre-vocational secondary education (vmbo, 4 years), senior general secondary education (havo, 5 years) or pre university education (vwo, 6 years). Selection occurs with the advice of the teacher as main determinant, although a national test (CITO-toets) taken by most children also plays a large role.”

Univ.-Prof. Dr. Marca Wolfensberger, „Talent Development in European Higher Education“ (2015), S. 44f

 

Dänemark: A secondary education diploma does not guarantee a place in higher education ...

Dänemark: „A secondary education diploma does not guarantee a place in higher education. Admission depends on the number of 'student seats' available. For every study program at a higher education institution, a maximum number of students is set. For some studies this number is decided centrally by the ministry, for others it is set by the institution.

Univ.-Prof. Dr. Marca Wolfensberger, „Talent Development in European Higher Education“ (2015), S. 108

 

Admission to Norwegian universities ...

Norwegen: „Admission to Norwegian universities is a complicated process, partly dependent on grades. Students who follow a general training path at the upper secondary school will take exams that lead to general university admission certification, called generell studiekompetanse. This diploma is a requirement to be admitted to universities, but it does not guarantee placement.“

Univ.-Prof. Dr. Marca Wolfensberger, „Talent Development in European Higher Education“ (2015), S. 129

 

Schweden: A numerus clausus principle applies to all higher education study programs ...

Schweden: „Admission to higher education depends on upper secondary grades and a national admission test that students can take voluntarily. A numerus clausus principle applies to all higher education study programs, meaning that there is a great deal of competition for seats in the most popular programs.“

Univ.-Prof. Dr. Marca Wolfensberger, „Talent Development in European Higher Education“ (2015), S. 143

 

Finnland: Entrance to higher education is highly selective and all study paths are subject to quota ...

Finnland: „Entrance to higher education is highly selective and all study paths are subject to quota. The amount of seats for each study path at each HEI (Anm.: Higher Education Institution) is determined in negotiations with the ministry of Education and Culture. Universities and polytechnics select their students independently. Institutions apply different selection criteria, but the most common procedure includes the grades attained in the matriculation examination together with the results of an entrance examination. On average, about one third of those taking the exam gain access to university.“

Univ.-Prof. Dr. Marca Wolfensberger, „Talent Development in European Higher Education“ (2015), S. 157

 

Finnland: Schools for the gifted and talented ...

Finnland: „The upper secondary level has witnessed an increase in the number of 'special schools', focusing on the education of talented youngsters in arts, sports, science and languages. According to Finnish researchers Kirsi Tirri and Elina Kuusisto, 'these special schools can just as well be called schools for the gifted and talented as it is very difficult to be accepted into them'. Selection is based on the marks of the student, while most places organize their own admission exam as well.“

Univ.-Prof. Dr. Marca Wolfensberger, „Talent Development in European Higher Education“ (2015), S. 159

 

Finnland: Competition for places in popular programs is fierce ...

Finnland: „A national entrance exam is taken for every study program and admission is based on these exam results. Competition for places in popular programs is fierce.“

Univ.-Prof. Dr. Marca Wolfensberger, „Talent Development in European Higher Education“ (2015), S. 249

 

Auf Tests gestützte Übergangsprognostik ...

„Ich würde für einen Übergang nach der vierten Klasse mit einer auch auf Tests gestützten Übergangsprognostik eintreten, deren Trefferquote besser ist als das Lehrerurteil. Sie kann die weitere Bildungskarriere relativ gut voraussagen.“

Univ.-Prof. Dr. Heinz-Elmar Tenorth, Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung online am 31. Juli 2014

 

Top-Performer aus selektiven Privatschulen ...

„Top performers in science at age 15 tend to be in schools where others are also high performers and from relatively advantaged socio-economic backgrounds. Many such schools select students according to their academic record and many of them are private.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „Education Today 2013“ (2013), S. 106

 

Vietnam: Process to select the gifted math students and intensively develop their talent according to their own requirements ...

Vietnam: „From the late 1980s, gifted math classes of the universities and then gifted schools around the country have conducted their independent entrance examination process so as to select the gifted math students and intensively develop their talent according to their own requirements.“

Nguyen Van Tuan u. a., „Talent Support in Vietnamese Education“. In: Győri, „International horizons of talent support II. Best practices within and without the European Union II“ (2012), S. 204f

 

Singapurs Engstelle nach der Matura ...

„Singapore has only a few institutions of higher education […] and, consequently, admission is highly competitive.“

Dr. János Gordon Győri, „Talent Support in Southeast Asia: The Singapore Example“. In: Győri, „International horizons of talent support. Best practices within and without the European Union“ (2011), S. 149

 

Singapore’s Primary School leaving Examination at the end of Year 6 carries astonishingly high stakes ...

„Singapore’s Primary School leaving Examination at the end of Year 6 is not just one more standardized test. It carries astonishingly high stakes. Pupils’ scores affect the status of the secondary school they or their parents might be able to choose and the stream (or track) that they will be assigned to.”

Univ.-Prof. Dr. Andy Hargreaves u. a., „The global fourth way“ (2011), S. 74

 

Finnland: Talent support institutions ...

Finnland: „At secondary level, 37 of the 463 general secondary schools of the country provide special education. These could also be defined as talent support institutions, for it is very difficult to be admitted there. Selection is based on the marks of the student, while most places organise their own admission exam as well.“

Balázs Hornyák, „Pillars of Talent Support in Finland“. In: „Győri, „International horizons of talent support. Best practices within and without the European Union“ (2011), S. 56