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Korean and Japanese 15-year-olds spending less time connected to the Internet compared to students in other countries ...

„Using the Internet intensively — more than 6 hours per day — is also associated with less satisfaction with life, arriving late for school and lower education expectations, according to the OECD report PISA 2015 Results: Students’ Well-Being. Maybe Korean and Japanese parents and students know best, and that is why 15-year-olds reported spending less time connected to the Internet compared to students in other countries, particularly on school days.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „PISA in Focus“, Nr. 83, April 2018, S. 5

 

Australien, Japan und Republik Korea: durchschnittliche Bildungsgebühren für inländische Bildungsteilnehmer ...

„In Australien, Japan und der Republik Korea betragen die durchschnittlichen Bildungsgebühren für inländische Bildungsteilnehmer in einem Bachelorbildungsgang in unabhängigen privaten Bildungseinrichtungen mehr als 8.000 US-Dollar im Vergleich zu 4.500 US-Dollar bis 5.300 US-Dollar in öffentlichen Bildungseinrichtungen.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „Bildung auf einen Blick 2018, OECD-Indikatoren“ (2018), S. 380

 

Teachers in Finland and Japan perform best in both numeracy and literacy ...

„Teachers in Finland and Japan perform best in both numeracy and literacy, while teachers in Chile and Turkey perform worst in both domains.“

Univ.-Prof. Dr. Eric Hanushek u. a., „The Value of Smarter Teachers: International Evidence on Teacher Cognitive Skills and Student Performance“ (2018), S. 9

 

Macao und Japan: Systems where advantaged and disadvantaged children are equally likely to attend high quality early years settings ...

Macao und Japan: „The impact of high quality early years provision is well proven, with the greatest impact being for children from disadvantaged backgrounds. Yet, in many systems around the world, children from disadvantaged homes are the least likely to engage in such provision, due to issues of funding and access. By contrast, Macao and Japan – two of the high performing, high equity systems listed above – stand out as systems where advantaged and disadvantaged children are equally likely to attend high quality early years settings.“

Dr. John Jerrim u. a., „Educational disadvantage: how does England compare?“ (2018), S. 25

 

Educational attainment and skills are less linked to NEET status in Japan than in most other OECD countries ...

„Educational attainment and skills are less linked to NEET status in Japan than in most other OECD countries; over one third of Japanese NEETs even have a tertiary qualification.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „Investing in Youth: Japan“ (2017), S. 14

 

Private tutoring is an important feature of the Japanese education system ...

„Private tutoring is an important feature of the Japanese education system. About half of all junior high school students receive out-of-school lessons in so-called 'cram schools' (juku) after class has ended in the afternoon, on weekends and during summer vacations […] Already in the first year of elementary school, about one in six pupils attend juku to avoid falling behind or to cover class material in additional detail. While the fees that juku charge can vary greatly, The Economist magazine estimated the annual costs per student at around JPY 260 000 (EUR 2 100).“

OECD (Hrsg.), „Investing in Youth: Japan“ (2017), S. 111

 

Japan: Most elementary and junior high schools offer special-needs classes for pupils with disabilities, often emotional disturbances, autism or intellectual disabilities ...

Japan: „Most elementary and junior high schools offer special-needs classes for pupils with disabilities, often emotional disturbances, autism or intellectual disabilities. All students in such a class share the same type of disability, and the instruction follows national guidelines adapted to each type of disability. Special-needs pupils are taught in a separate classroom but may attend regular classes with other pupils in some subjects.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „Investing in Youth: Japan“ (2017), S. 115

 

Japan: Socio-economic background matters less for academic performance than in most other OECD countries ...

„Japanese pupils achieved excellent scores in all PISA rounds, and adults were the best-performers in the PIAAC Survey of Adult Skills. Japan scores well also in terms of educational equity: socio-economic background matters less for academic performance than in most other OECD countries.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „Investing in Youth: Japan“ (2017), S. 139

 

Korea and Japan: Teachers' salaries far higher than the OECD average ...

„In Korea, teachers with more than 15 years of experience outearn their peers in many private sector jobs. In both Japan and Korea, teachers with more than 15 years of experience (and whose performance has been routinely assessed) enjoy salaries that are, respectively, 125 and 140 percent of per capita GDP – far higher than the OECD average of 107 percent.“

World Bank Group (Hrsg.), „Growing Smarter“ (2018), S. 15

 

In Japan teachers spend only 18 hours a week teaching on average, although they have the highest total working hours (53 hours a week) ...

„In Top Performing Systems, a surprisingly small proportion of total working hours is spent in class. In Japan, for example, teachers spend only 18 hours a week teaching on average, although they have the highest total working hours (53 hours a week). With nearly two-thirds of their working time spent outside of class, they spend much more time on lesson preparation and other quality-enhancing activities to make in-class time much more effective.“

World Bank Group (Hrsg.), „Growing Smarter“ (2018), S. 18

 

Japan has been a pioneer in private tutoring ...

„Japan has been a pioneer in private tutoring. In 2010, families spent US$12 billion (0.2 percent of GDP) on private tutoring. In the Republic of Korea, families spent US$20 billion or about 1.5 percent of GDP on private tutoring in 2012; these expenses account for 12 percent of household spending. Some 80 percent of elementary, 69 percent of middle school, and 50 percent of high school students used private tutors in 2014.“

World Bank Group (Hrsg.), „Growing Smarter“ (2018), S. 121

 

Höchste Selbstmordrate der G7 Länder ...

„Angst vor Mobbing und schlechten Ergebnissen in Prüfungen führen zu enormem Stress unter Japans Schülern. […] Das Land hat die höchste Selbstmordrate der G7 Länder, jährlich nehmen sich ca. 20.000 Menschen das Leben. Während die Gesamtzahl zwar sinkt, steigt die Selbstmordrate bei jungen Erwachsenen, gerade wenn sie ihren ersten Job beginnen oder die Schule wieder los geht.“

sumikai.com am 3. September 2017

 

Bildungsgebühren in Australien, Japan und Korea ...

„In Australien, Japan und Korea betragen die Bildungsgebühren für einen Bachelor- oder gleichwertigen Bildungsgang in privaten Bildungseinrichtungen mehr als 8.000 US-Dollar gegenüber 4.500 US-Dollar bis 5.300 US-Dollar in öffentlichen Bildungseinrichtungen. In den Vereinigten Staaten verlangen unabhängige private Bildungseinrichtungen für Bachelor- oder gleichwertige Bildungsgänge mit durchschnittlichen jährlichen Bildungsgebühren von fast 21.200 US-Dollar mehr als das Zweieinhalbfache der durchschnittlichen jährlichen Bildungsgebühren an öffentlichen Bildungseinrichtungen (rund 8.200 US-Dollar).“

OECD (Hrsg.), „Bildung auf einen Blick 2017“ (2017), S. 261f

 

Japan: High school admission is typically based on highly competitive entrance examinations ...

Japan: „High school admission is typically based on highly competitive entrance examinations administered by the prefectural or municipal boards of education or directly through private high schools. The three years of junior high school are therefore a particularly important period during pupils’ lives as they determine whether a young person will be able to attend a prestigious upper-secondary school.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „Investing in Youth: Japan“ (2017), S. 111

 

Ganztagsschule à la Japan ...

„Pupils at elementary and junior high school level typically attend school for five to six hours per day over a five-day week. In many schools, students have lunch at school and afterwards jointly clean their classroom and communal areas, including the gym and the lavatories.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „Investing in Youth: Japan“ (2017), S. 111

 

Prioritising salaries over class size ...

„Japan and Korea, two top performers in PISA, are good examples of countries prioritising salaries over class size. Both countries pay their teachers relatively well and require fewer teaching hours, so that teachers have more time for activities such as preparing lessons, meeting other teachers and tutoring students who are behind.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „Education Indicators in Focus 46“ (Dezember 2016), S. 4

 

Frei finanzierte Privatschulen ...

„In Japan, Lebanon, Peru, Qatar, Chinese Taipei and the United Arab Emirates, at least one in four students are enrolled in government-independent private schools.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „PISA 2015 Results (Volume II): Policies and Practices for Successful Schools (2016), S. 124

 

The high levels of stress are reflected in Japan’s suicide rates ...

Japan: „The high levels of stress are reflected in Japan’s suicide rates, which are among the highest in the world, including among younger generations.“

UNESCO (Hrsg.), „Happy Schools!” (2016), S. 28

 

Special education in Japan ...

Japan: „Based on specific disabilities, special education is provided in three ways: in special schools, in special classes and resource rooms within normal schools, or within the normal classroom.“

Weltbank (Hrsg.), „How Shanghai Does It“ (2016), S. 63

 

Numeracy skills of teachers ...

„In Japan and Finland, for example, the average teacher has better numeracy skills than the average college graduate while in the Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, the Slovak Republic and Sweden, the reverse is true.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „Teaching Excellence through Professional Learning and Policy Reform“ (2016), S. 12

 

In Croatia, Hong Kong-China, Japan and the Netherlands, over 90 % of students attend selective schools ...

„In Croatia, Hong Kong-China, Japan and the Netherlands, over 90 % of students attend selective schools, i.e. schools where student academic performance and/or recommendations from feeder schools are always considered for admission.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „Equations and Inequalities“ (2016), S. 88

 

Suicide rates among under 30s ...

„Suicide rates among under 30s are highest in Finland, Japan, Korea and New Zealand, with 15 or more suicides per 100 000 youth.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „Society at a Glance 2016” (2016), S. 118

 

Japan: Separate schools for students who cannot learn the same way as children in normal schools ...

Japan: „Separate schools are reserved for students who cannot learn the same way as children in normal schools, including students who are blind, deaf, or otherwise handicapped.“

Weltbank (Hrsg.), „How Shanghai Does It“ (2016), S. 63

 

Annual tuition fees for bachelor's programme in Japan ...

For students in a bachelor’s programme in Japan, annual average tuition fees were USD 5 152 in public institutions in 2014/15 and USD 8 263 in private institutions in 2013/14.“

OECD (Hrsg.), “Education at a Glance. Country Note Japan” (2015), S. 6

 

In school systems with hierarchical tracks ...

„In school systems with hierarchical tracks, as they are common in some European countries (e.g., Germany, Luxembourg, Switzerland, Austria), but also in Korea, China, Brazil, Russia, and Japan, tracking does take place at the school level. In these school systems, students are allocated by teachers to different schools with different curricula and different final degrees on the basis of their achievements and interests in primary school.“

Prof. Dr. Florian Klapproth, „Do Algorithms Homogenize Students’ Achievements in Secondary School Better Than Teachers’ Tracking Decisions?“ in „Educatrion Policy Analysis Archives“, 23(62), 2015, S. 3

 

According to Japanese students in PISA 2012, student truancy is low and conduciveness to learning in classrooms is above the OECD average ...

„According to Japanese students in PISA 2012, student truancy is low (8.9%, compared to the OECD average of 35.3%), and conduciveness to learning in classrooms (disciplinary climate) is above the OECD average.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „Education Policy Outlook. Japan“ (2015), S. 10

 

In 2011, Japan increased the total number of study hours in primary and lower secondary education ...

„In 2011, Japan increased the total number of study hours in primary and lower secondary education, in order to reduce dependence on private education resources.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „Education Policy Outlook. Japan“ (2015), S. 4

 

Japan aims to improve the quality of VET education ...

Japan: „Following recommendations from the Central Council of Education, Japan aims to improve the quality of VET education by introducing guidelines to enhance VET provision at different levels of the education system.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „Education Policy Outlook. Japan“ (2015), S. 8

 

Japan: 60 % of students follow some sort of out-of-school private academic tutoring ...

Japan: „Primarily due to severe competition to enter the country’s top universities, 60 % of students follow some sort of out-of-school private academic tutoring starting at lower secondary level.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „Education Policy Outlook. Japan“ (2015), S. 8

 

In 2011, Japan increased the total number of study hours per year in order to decrease dependence on juku schools ...

„In 2011, Japan increased the total number of study hours per year in order to decrease dependence on juku schools. This increase was by about 300 hours in primary education and, starting in 2012/13, by about 100 hours in lower secondary education.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „Education Policy Outlook. Japan“ (2015), S. 10

 

Japan: The share of private expenditure on tertiary educational institutions is 66 % ...

Japan: „The share of private expenditure on tertiary educational institutions is 66 %, more than twice the OECD average of 30 %.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „Education Policy Outlook. Japan“ (2015), S. 16

 

One of the most marked characteristics of Japanese society is the high status attached to education ...

„One of the most marked characteristics of Japanese society is the high status attached to education, which is seen as being the bedrock of a successful career, social advancement and prestige.“

Prof. Dr. Matthias Pilz u. a., „Problematic transitions from school to employment: freeters and NEETs in Japan and Germany“ in „Compare“, 2015, Vol. 45, No. 1, S. 79

 

Japan: In 2012 the private preparatory school market in Japan was valued at $9.2 billion ...

Japan: „Yano Research Institute, based in Tokyo, estimated that during the 2012 fiscal year, the private preparatory school market in Japan was valued at $9.2 billion, with private instruction growing in particular.“

New York Times online am 10. August 2014

 

Students in Japan and Korea spend many hours in private afterschool programmes ...

„Students in Japan and Korea spend many hours in private afterschool programmes drilling and practising, and these countries often have high results in international achievement tests compared with many other OECD countries.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „Education Indicators in Focus 22“ (April 2014), S. 4

 

Across OECD countries, 18 % of students skipped at least one class ...

„Across OECD countries, 18 % of students skipped at least one class and 15% skipped at least an entire day of school without authorisation in the two weeks before the PISA test. […] In most high-performing school systems, such as Hong Kong-China, Japan, Korea and Shanghai-China, virtually no student skips classes or days of school.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „PISA in Focus“, Nr. 35, Jänner 2014, S. 1f

 

Some 7 % of students in Japan and 9 % of students in Korea attend schools where ...

„Some 7 % of students in Japan and 9 % of students in Korea attend schools where more than 10 % of students skipped a day or a class at least once in the two weeks prior to the PISA test; by contrast, across OECD countries, an average of 73 % of students attend such schools.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „PISA in Focus“, Nr. 35, Jänner 2014, S. 3

 

Nachhilfeinstitute Japans notieren an der Börse ...

„21 juku are large enough to be publicly listed on the stock exchange.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „Lessons from PISA for Korea“ (2014), S. 95

37, 54

 

The highest-performing educational systems recruit their teachers from the top third ...

„The highest-performing educational systems recruit their teachers from the top third of each cohort of graduates (top 5 % in Korea, 10 % in Finland and 30 % in Singapore and Japan).“

OECD (Hrsg.), „Lessons from PISA for Korea“ (2014), S. 193

 

Great variation of students’ performance between schools ...

„Like in Germany, there is great variation of students’ performance between schools in Japan, which has even increased over the last decade, but low variation within schools.“

Steve Entrich, „Effects of investments in out-of-school education in Germany and Japan“ in de Gruyter, „Contemporary Japan“, 2014, 26(1), S. 72

 

Students’ academic achievement increased due to out-of-school lessons ...

„In Japan, high school students’ academic achievement is increased due to out-of-school lessons.“

Steve Entrich, „Effects of investments in out-of-school education in Germany and Japan“ in de Gruyter, „Contemporary Japan“, 2014, 26(1), S. 71

 

Out-of-school education determines higher achievement scores ...

Japan: „Out-of-school education determines higher achievement scores in international comparison in a decisive way and therefore provides a reasonable explanation for the Japanese success in PISA.“

Steve Entrich, „Effects of investments in out-of-school education in Germany and Japan“ in de Gruyter, „Contemporary Japan“, 2014, 26(1), S. 71

 

Juku industry in Japan ...

„Today most Japanese students have juku experience. It is commonly perceived that without the juku industry the Japanese formal school system can no longer properly prepare students for their later life course.“

Steve Entrich, „Effects of investments in out-of-school education in Germany and Japan“ in de Gruyter, „Contemporary Japan“, 2014, 26(1), S. 75

 

Juku industry generates about $ 12 billion a year ...

„Compared to the Japanese juku industry that generates about $ 12 billion a year, the institutionalized German Nachhilfe system with its estimated more than 4,000 Nachhilfe schools is in an early stage of development.“

Steve Entrich, „Effects of investments in out-of-school education in Germany and Japan“ in de Gruyter, „Contemporary Japan“, 2014, 26(1), S. 77

 

Performance-enhancing enrichment lessons ...

„Nearly every second Japanese student uses performance-enhancing enrichment lessons.“

Steve Entrich, „Effects of investments in out-of-school education in Germany and Japan“ in de Gruyter, „Contemporary Japan“, 2014, 26(1), S. 95

 

Nachhilfeunterricht „big business“ bei den PISA-Siegern ...

„Private tuition is big business in Singapore and other high-performing East Asian countries like South Korea and Japan.“

Dr. Ng Pak Tee, National Institute of Education Singapur, Today online am 9. Juli 2013

 

In Mathematik leistungsstarke Zehnjährige ...

„Besonders hoch ist der Anteil leistungsstarker Schüler/innen in Korea (39 %), Japan (30 %) und Nordirland (24 %). In Österreich zählen hingegen nur 2 % zu Kompetenzstufe 4.“

BIFIE, „Nationaler Bildungsbericht Österreich 2012“ (2013), Band 1, S. 132

 

Tracking within schools is common and on the rise in the U.S., the U.K., and Japan ...

„The U.S., the U.K., and Japan essentially keep their entire secondary education system comprehensive – although tracking within schools is common and on the rise in these countries.“

Univ.-Prof. Dr. Christian Dustmann u.a., „The Long-Term Effects of Early Track Choice“ (2013), S. 2

 

Leistungen der 10-Jährigen ...

Leistungen der 10-Jährigen: „The East Asian countries, including Singapore, Korea, Hong Kong SAR, Chinese Taipei, and Japan excel in mathematics from assessment cycle to assessment cycle, and the Russian Federation and Finland are top performers in reading.“

IEA (Hrsg.), „TIMSS and PIRLS 2011: Relationships among reading, mathematics, and science achievement at the fourth grade“ (2013), S. 14

 

924 billion yen (US$ 12 billion) on private tutoring ...

„Households in Japan were reported in 2010 to be spending about 924 billion yen (US$ 12 billion) on private tutoring.“

Univ.-Prof. Dr. Mark Bray u.a., „Shadow Education“ (2012), S. 21

 

In Japan gehen die Schüler in der ersten Sekundarstufe zweimal täglich in die Schule ...

„In Japan gehen die Schüler in der ersten Sekundarstufe zweimal täglich in die Schule: morgens in die Staats- und abends in die Privatschule, damit sie am Ende der ersten Sekundarstufe in die wenigen Gymnasien kommen, die den Zugang zu den renommierten Universitäten ermöglichen, die für die weitere Karriere entscheidend sind.“

Univ.-Prof. Dr. Jürgen Oelkers, Neue Zürcher Zeitung vom 9. März 2011