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Countries with higher teacher salaries ...

„Countries with higher teacher salaries (relative to GDP) and higher perceptions of the social value of the teaching profession have, on average, larger shares of students who expect to work as teachers.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „Teaching in Focus 22“ (Juni 2018), S. 2

 

Großbritannien: Just under 40,000 teachers quit the profession in 2016 ...

Just under 40,000 teachers quit the profession in 2016 – the latest figures available – representing about 9 % of the workforce, according to government figures. And not enough of them are being replaced – there is now a shortfall of 30,000 classroom teachers, particularly at secondary level, where 20 % of teacher training vacancies are unfilled.”

Guardian online am 13. Mai 2018

 

Lehrermangel durch Flucht aus dem Beruf ...

„In many countries around the world, high attrition rates are considered to be the most important factor contributing to the shortage of qualified science teachers.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „PISA in Focus 81“ (Februar 2018), S. 2

 

Shortage of special education teachers combined with the greater inclusion of children with disabilities into mainstream classrooms ...

„The shortage of special education teachers combined with the greater inclusion of children with disabilities into mainstream classrooms has forced schools in many countries to employ teachers without the appropriate qualifications.“

North Cook, „Who Needs Special Education Professional Development?“ (2018), S. 9

 

How to attract the most talented people into the teaching profession ...

„The complexity and variety of competences required poses a challenge for all national education systems: how to attract the most talented people into the teaching profession and retain them. […] Remuneration is a key element in making teaching an attractive profession. Along with other factors such as working conditions, career prospects, professional development opportunities and recognition, it plays an important role in drawing people into the profession as well as ensuring that serving teachers are satisfied and sufficiently motivated to continue to provide high quality teaching.“

EU-Kommission (Hrsg.), „Teachers’ and School Heads' Salaries and Allowances, 2016/17“ (2018), S. 11

 

The teaching profession is becoming less attractive as a career choice ...

„Although the role of teachers is becoming increasingly important as Europe rises to meet its educational, social and economic challenges, the teaching profession is becoming less attractive as a career choice. Higher expectations in terms of student outcomes and greater pressures due to a more diverse student population combined with rapid technological innovation are having a profound impact on the teaching profession.“

EU-Kommission (Hrsg.), „Teaching Careers in Europe“ (2018), S. 17

 

36 % of teachers in primary and secondary schools were 50 years old or more in 2015 ...

„The latest Eurostat data shows that 36 % of teachers in primary and secondary schools were 50 years old or more in 2015.“

EU-Kommission (Hrsg.), „Teaching Careers in Europe“ (2018), S. 30

In Österreich sind es sogar 45 %.

 

Teachers in Finland and Japan perform best in both numeracy and literacy ...

„Teachers in Finland and Japan perform best in both numeracy and literacy, while teachers in Chile and Turkey perform worst in both domains.“

Univ.-Prof. Dr. Eric Hanushek u. a., „The Value of Smarter Teachers: International Evidence on Teacher Cognitive Skills and Student Performance“ (2018), S. 9

 

Where teachers come fom the upper and lower part of the college skill distribution ...

„Teachers come from the upper part of the college skill distribution in some countries (e.g., Finland, Singapore, Ireland, and Chile) and from the lower part in others (e.g., Austria, Denmark, the Slovak Republic, and Poland).“

Univ.-Prof. Dr. Eric Hanushek u. a., „The Value of Smarter Teachers: International Evidence on Teacher Cognitive Skills and Student Performance“ (2018), S. 11

 

Differences in teacher cognitive skills across countries are strongly associated with international differences in student performance ...

„Differences in teacher cognitive skills across countries are strongly associated with international differences in student performance.“

Univ.-Prof. Dr. Eric Hanushek u. a., „The Value of Smarter Teachers: International Evidence on Teacher Cognitive Skills and Student Performance“ (2018), S. 33

 

England: Teacher shortages ...

„In the PISA 2015 survey, 45 per cent of head teachers in England reported that teacher shortages were the greatest barrier to improving outcomes, compared to around 30 per cent for the OECD. The situation in disadvantaged schools is more acute – since these schools generally face greater recruitment challenges and have higher levels of turnover than other schools.“

Dr. John Jerrim u. a., „Educational disadvantage: how does England compare?“ (2018), S. 8

 

25 % of young teachers in the United States quit their jobs within the first three years ...

„25 % of young teachers in the United States quit their jobs within the first three years, and almost 40 % quit within the first five years, triggering a demand for replacement teachers.“

Dr. Tarek Mostafa u. a., „Science teachers’ satisfaction: Evidence from the PISA 2015 teacher survey“ (2018), S. 8

 

Teachers are likely to change schools for higher salaries or better working conditions ...

„Teachers are likely to change schools for higher salaries or better working conditions; they might also leave the profession for better jobs. This is particularly common among science teachers who have alternative and possibly better job prospects outside the teaching profession (but this largely depends on the local economy).“

Dr. Tarek Mostafa u. a., „Science teachers’ satisfaction: Evidence from the PISA 2015 teacher survey“ (2018), S. 27

 

The quality of teachers depends mainly on setting high standards for entering teacher-preparation programmes ...

„The quality of teachers depends mainly on setting high standards for entering teacher-preparation programmes and for the quality of initial preparation, and on the attention given to the quality of teachers’ preparation in selection and recruitment processes.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „Effective Teacher Policies“ (2018), S. 23

 

In some high-performing countries and economies candidates must pass a competitive examination ...

„In some high-performing countries and economies, such as Finland, Hong Kong (China), Korea, Macao (China) and Chinese Taipei [Anm.: „Chinese Taipei“ = Taiwan], candidates must pass a competitive examination to be admitted into pre-service teacher education.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „Effective Teacher Policies“ (2018), S. 46

 

All high-performing countries recognise that beginning teachers need intensive support ...

„All high-performing countries recognise that beginning teachers need intensive support to apply their knowledge to teaching, and to develop professional networks with more experienced mentors.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „Effective Teacher Policies“ (2018), S. 48

 

Teaching graduates in Singapore must successfully complete a probation period ...

„Teaching graduates in Singapore must successfully complete a probation period in which their competence for the job is evaluated. Singapore also specifically recruits candidates from the top third of the secondary school graduating class by offering them attractive conditions for study and work, such as a competitive monthly stipend during the training period.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „Effective Teacher Policies“ (2018), S. 48

 

Recruiting the best high school graduates into teacher-education institutions ...

„Several top-performing countries, such as Finland, Korea and Singapore, build high-quality education workforces by recruiting the best high school graduates into teacher-education institutions and then channelling them into the teaching profession.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „Effective Teacher Policies“ (2018), S. 136

 

Both teachers’ salaries and the social status of the teaching profession are positively associated with students’ expectations to work as teachers ...

„Results indicate that both teachers’ salaries and the social status of the teaching profession are positively associated with students’ expectations to work as teachers. […] In countries where teachers’ salaries are higher, both boys and girls were more likely to expect to work as teachers.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „Effective Teacher Policies“ (2018), S. 142

 

Extremely low annual teacher attrition rates in high-performing economies in East Asia and Pacific ...

„The high reward for experience is a likely reason for the extremely low annual teacher attrition rates in high-performing economies in East Asia and Pacific – less than 3 percent on average, against 6 percent in most Western European countries and 8 percent in the United States.“

World Bank Group (Hrsg.), „Growing Smarter“ (2018), S. 15

 

Teachers in Top Performing Systems benefit from coherent systems of recruitment, development, and support ...

„Teachers in Top Performing Systems benefit from coherent systems of recruitment, development, and support that make their jobs easier and promote effective teaching. These systems begin by attracting top candidates into teaching, filtering for quality, and providing an excellent induction into the profession.“

World Bank Group (Hrsg.), „Growing Smarter“ (2018), S. 139

 

Educational systems perform best when they have teachers who are respected, prepared, selected on merit, and supported in their work ...

„Educational systems perform best when they have teachers who are respected, prepared, selected on merit, and supported in their work. East Asia and Pacific systems provide many lessons for developing such high-performing systems. A foundational aspect is attracting high-quality candidates into the profession by offering not only competitive compensation but also an appealing professional environment founded on respect and support.“

World Bank Group (Hrsg.), „Growing Smarter“ (2018), S. 159

 

Zuwanderungsbedingt wird die Zahl der Kinder und Jugendlichen bis 19 Jahre steigen ...

„Zuwanderungsbedingt wird die Zahl der Kinder und Jugendlichen bis 19 Jahre steigen, wobei bis 2035 ein Anstieg um 8% von derzeit 1,71 Mio. auf 1,86 Mio. zu erwarten ist. Dazu tragen sowohl die zuwandernden unter 20-Jährigen als auch Geburten der Immigrantinnen bei. Ohne Zuwanderung nach Österreich würde die Zahl der Kinder und Jugendlichen bis 2035 um 7% auf 1,59 Mio. absinken.“

Statistik Austria, Pressemitteilung vom 23. November 2017

 

England: 27.000 Lehrer den Job wieder aufgegeben ...

„Alleine im letzten Jahr haben in England mehr als 27.000 Lehrer, die seit 2011 ausgebildet wurden, den Job wieder aufgegeben. Fast ein Viertel der Lehrer hänge den Job innerhalb von fünf Jahren an den Nagel, berichtet der ‚Guardian‘. Von den 117.000 Lehrern, die in den Jahren 2011 bis 2015 ausgebildet wurden, haben 23 Prozent ihren Beruf bereits wieder aufgegeben.“

Der Standard online am 13. Juli 2017

 

Großbritannien: Maths graduates can earn more in occupations other than teaching ...

Großbritannien: „The data shows that teachers with a maths degree tend to earn around £4,500 less per year than those maths graduates who choose an alternative profession. This indicates that maths graduates may be more inclined to choose an alternative career to seek higher pay rewards. […] It is apparent that maths graduates can earn more in occupations other than teaching. Therefore, there appears to be both evidence of and a rationale for a shortage of maths teachers.“

Migration Advisory Committee (Hrsg.), „Partial review of the Shortage Occupation List“ (2017), S. 115

 

Großbritannien: Median pay for a computer science graduate working in teaching ...

Großbritannien: „The data show the median pay for a computer science graduate working in teaching is around £13,300 less than for alternative occupations.“

Migration Advisory Committee (Hrsg.), „Partial review of the Shortage Occupation List“ (2017), S. 117

 

Großbritannien: Schools may find it increasingly difficult to attract computer science graduates into teaching ...

Großbritannien: „Schools may find it increasingly difficult to attract computer science graduates into teaching given the demand for these graduates in occupations that can make them a better offer.“

Migration Advisory Committee (Hrsg.), „Partial review of the Shortage Occupation List“ (2017), S. 141

 

Großbritannien: Half of the education profession (53 %) have considered leaving the education sector ...

Großbritannien: „Half of the education profession (53 %) have considered leaving the education sector over the past two years as a result of health pressures and the biggest reasons given are volume of workload and seeking a better work–life balance.“

YouGov (Hrsg.), „Health Survey 2017. The mental health and wellbeing of education professionals in the UK“ (2017), S. 5

 

The learning environment in Swedish classrooms ...

„The learning environment in Swedish classrooms is positive in terms of student-teacher relations, but it could be more conducive to learning. Teachers report low job satisfaction, and fewer teachers than in other OECD countries would choose their profession again.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „Education Policy Outlook. Sweden“ (2017), S. 4

 

Only 5 % of Swedish teachers considered that the teaching profession is valued in society ...

„Only 5 % of Swedish teachers considered that the teaching profession is valued in society (compared to the TALIS average of 30.9 %), and only 53.4 % reported they would choose to work as teachers if they could decide again.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „Education Policy Outlook. Sweden“ (2017), S. 11

 

Numerous factors contribute to the attractiveness of the teaching profession ...

„Numerous factors contribute to the attractiveness of the teaching profession, including teacher salaries, working conditions, career progression possibilities and autonomy to influence one’s own work. In parallel, teachers’ perceptions of their profession, such as their job satisfaction, or whether they feel that the profession is valued in their society, reflect this attractiveness.“

Kristina Sonmark, MSc, u. a., „Understanding teachers' pedagogical knowledge“ (2017), S. 37

 

In the United States, 25 % of new teachers leave the profession before completing three years of teaching ...

„In the United States, 25 % of new teachers leave the profession before completing three years of teaching, and the figure rises to almost 40 % when looking at those with under five years of experience.“

Kristina Sonmark, MSc, u. a., „Understanding teachers' pedagogical knowledge“ (2017), S. 98

 

Die hohe Bedeutung einer spezifischen Lehrerausbildung ...

„Large-scale studies in North Carolina, New York, and Texas found significant negative effects on student achievements for teachers who entered teaching through alternative routes, as compared to fully certified teachers with comparable experience.“

Univ.-Prof. Dr. Linda Darling-Hammond u. a., „Teaching in the Flat World“ (2015), S. 14

 

In the United States, about one-third of beginning teachers leave the profession within 5 years ...

„In the United States, about one-third of beginning teachers leave the profession within 5 years, costing districts $7.3 billion a year.“

Univ.-Prof. Dr. Linda Darling-Hammond u. a., „Teaching in the Flat World“ (2015), S. 85

 

USA: Attrition in the teacher workforce has risen sharply at both the beginning and the end of the career ...

USA: „Attrition in the teacher workforce has risen sharply at both the beginning and the end of the career. The annual overall attrition rate among teacher rose by 41 % from 1988 to 2008, from 6.4 % to 9 %. The proportion of 1st-year teachers who leave rose from 10 % to 13 % during that period. At least 30 % of teachers leave teaching within 5 years (rates are higher in low-income communities), and the profession is relying more and more on less-experienced teachers.“

Univ.-Prof. Dr. Linda Darling-Hammond u. a., „Teaching in the Flat World“ (2015), S. 7

 

Becoming a primary school teacher in Finland is a very competitive process ...

„Becoming a primary school teacher in Finland is a very competitive process. […] Annually only about 1 in every 10 applicants will be accepted to study to become primary school teacher.“

Univ.-Prof. Dr. Pasi Sahlberg, Developing Effective Teachers and School Leaders. The Case of Finland“. In: Darling-Hammond u. a., „Teaching in the Flat World“ (2015), S. 32

 

Finnland: Attrition is much less common than in other countries ...

Finnland: „When new teachers are employed in a school, they usually stay there for life. Very few primary school teachers leave their work during the first 5 years, and attrition is much less common than in other countries. An official estimate suggests that only 10 % to 15 % of teachers leave the profession during the course of their career.“

Univ.-Prof. Dr. Pasi Sahlberg, Developing Effective Teachers and School Leaders. The Case of Finland“. In: Darling-Hammond u. a., „Teaching in the Flat World“ (2015), S. 37

 

Schweden:The profession, once highly regarded, has seen salaries fall far behind other jobs requiring a higher-education degree ...

Schweden: „The profession, once highly regarded, has seen salaries fall far behind other jobs requiring a higher-education degree. The student demand for teaching programmes is so low that almost anyone applying will be accepted.“

Univ.-Prof. Dr. Marca Wolfensberger, „Talent Development in European Higher Education“ (2015), S. 139

 

Singapore offers the top one-third of the secondary school graduating class a monthly stipend when they choose teacher education at university ...

„Singapore offers the top one-third of the secondary school graduating class a monthly stipend when they choose teacher education at university. The payment is comparable to the monthly starting salary for graduates in other fields, and in exchange they must commit to teaching for at least three years.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „Education Indicators in Focus 21“ (April 2014), S. 4

 

USA: Median für die durchschnittliche Verweildauer im Lehrberuf ...

„Während früher der Median für die durchschnittliche Verweildauer im Lehrberuf, der in den USA ohnehin schon immer unter unserem lag, bei 15 bis 18 Jahren lag, liegt er inzwischen bei drei.“

Univ.-Prof. Dr. Stefan Hopmann, BundeslehrerInnentag 2014 der ÖPU Oberösterreich, Linz am 19. März 2014

 

The main incentives for drawing people into the teaching profession ...

„Attractive salaries, the potential for earning additional allowances and good working conditions constitute some of the main incentives for drawing people into the teaching profession and ensuring high levels of satisfaction and motivation among teachers and school heads.“

Eurydice (Hrsg.), „Teachers‘ and School Heads‘ Salaries and Allowances in Europe, 2013/14“ (2014), S. 6

 

Among young Finns, teaching is consistently the most admired profession ...

„Among young Finns, teaching is consistently the most admired profession in regular opinion polls of high school graduates. Classroom teaching is considered an independent and creative, high-status profession that attracts some of the best secondary school graduates each year.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „Lessons from PISA for Korea“ (2014), S. 174

 

Young Finns see teaching as a career on a par with other professions ...

„Young Finns see teaching as a career on a par with other professions where people work independently and rely on scientific knowledge and skills that they gained through university studies.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „Lessons from PISA for Korea“ (2014), S. 174

 

In Singapore, candidates are chosen from the top third of high school graduates ...

„In Singapore, candidates are chosen from the top third of high school graduates. In Finland, selection is highly competitive, with only about 10 % of applicants gaining entrance to teacher education programmes.“

UNESCO (Hrsg.), „Teaching and learning – Achieving quality for all“ (2014), S. 234

 

Teacher shortage and poorer performance ...

„Teacher shortage appears to be related to poorer performance in most countries.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „Lessons from PISA 2012 for the United States“ (2013), S. 46

 

Countries with the most effective education systems, such as Finland and Singapore, tend to have the most selective teacher recruitment policies ...

„Countries with the most effective education systems, such as Finland and Singapore, tend to have the most selective teacher recruitment policies. In these cases, the teaching profession is considered and treated as a cornerstone of society, acknowledging that teachers enable a country to maximise its future human capital. Only the most talented are encouraged to apply, and there are strict entry criteria based on competence and motivation. This approach is crucial to help boost the status of the profession. Boosting status also requires good pay, good working conditions, a high degree of professional autonomy and high qualification requirements – for all teachers.“

EU-Kommission (Hrsg.), „EU High Level Group of Experts on Literacy. Final Report“ (2012), S. 44

 

USA: Why new teachers leave the profession ...

„Recent work in the U.S. suggests that the increasing salary gap between teaching and other professions, poor working conditions in schools, combined with the disappointments and hardships from teaching are influential in why new teachers leave the profession.“

Dr. Helen Watt u.a., „Motivations for choosing teaching as a career“. In: „Teaching and Teacher Education“ 28 (2012), S. 794

 

In the countries with the most successful public education teachers come from the upper tier of university graduates ...

„In the countries with the most successful public education (South Korea, Singapore, Hong-Kong, Finland) teachers come from the upper tier of university graduates; in Finland they come from the uppermost 10 %.“

Balázs Hornyák, „Pillars of Talent Support in Finland“. In: Győri, „International horizons of talent support. Best practices within and without the European Union“ (2011), S. 54

 

The world’s top performing school systems recruit, develop and retain what this report will call ‚top third+‘ students ...

„The world’s top performing school systems – Singapore, Finland and South Korea – make a different choice. They recruit, develop and retain what this report will call ‚top third+‘ students as one of their central education strategies, and they’ve achieved extraordinary results.“

McKinsey (Hrsg.), „Closing the Talent Gap: Attracting and Retaining Top Third Graduates to a Career in Teaching“ (2010), S. 5