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Südkorea: Englisch im Kindergarten ...

„Koreanische Eltern zahlen bis zu 20 Millionen Won pro Jahr, umgerechnet 15 000 Euro, für einen solchen Kindergartenplatz. Drei- bis viermal mehr als für eine Vorschule, in der nur Koreanisch gesprochen wird. Schon seit 1995 gibt es in Korea Kindergarten-Versionen bekannter Englisch-Sprachtests.“

Süddeutsche Zeitung online am 23. Jänner 2018

 

Südkorea: Schon die Kleinsten pauken für die Aufnahmeprüfung für die Universität ...

Südkorea: „Wenn Eltern für eine möglichst optimale Ausbildung ihrer Kinder kämpfen, dann nicht nur, weil Bildung in dieser Nation, die den Buchdruck lange vor Gutenberg erfand, einen sehr hohen Stellenwert hat. Sie tun es auch deshalb, weil die Aufnahmeprüfung für die Universität über ihren künftigen Lebensstandard mitentscheidet. Dafür müssen schon die Kleinsten pauken.“

Süddeutsche Zeitung online am 23. Jänner 2018

 

Singapurs Weg zum PISA-Sieg ...

„Während im Schnitt der OECD-Länder 66 Prozent der Schüler angaben, Angst vor schlechten Noten zu haben, fürchten sich in Singapur 86 Prozent der Befragten davor. 76 Prozent der Singapurer berichteten, dass sie – selbst wenn sie gut vorbereitet sind – Angst vor Tests und Prüfungen haben. Im OECD-Schnitt sagten das nur 55 Prozent der Kinder.“

Luzerner Zeitung online am 26. August 2017

 

South Korea’s suicide rate is one of the highest among developing countries ...

„South Korea’s suicide rate is one of the highest among developing countries, with suicide being the fourth leading cause of death in the nation and the leading cause of death among teens. Moreover, these suicide rates spike in November, when college entrance exams are held.“

Mercedes Schneider, „School Choice. The End of Public Education?“ (2016), S. 3

 

Shanghai, Südkorea, Taiwan ...

Shanghai, Südkorea, Taiwan: „In these Asian countries/economies, spending many hours on homework and in additional instruction seems to be central to the life of top-performing students.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „PISA 2015. Students’ Well-Being“ (2017), S. 76

 

Countries where students are highly motivated to achieve ...

„PISA results show that countries where students are highly motivated to achieve also tend to be the countries where many students feel anxious about a test, even if they are well prepared for it.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „PISA 2015. Students’ Well-Being“ (2017), S. 6

 

Österreich mit dem geringsten Anteil schulisch belasteter Schüler/innen ...

„Im internationalen Vergleich gehört Österreich zu den HBSC-Ländern mit dem geringsten Anteil schulisch belasteter Schüler/innen. In Finnland beispielsweise ist dieser Anteil sehr hoch.“

BM für Gesundheit (Hrsg.), „Österreichischer Kinder- und Gesundheitsbericht“ (2016), S. 73

 

The high levels of stress are reflected in Japan’s suicide rates ...

Japan: „The high levels of stress are reflected in Japan’s suicide rates, which are among the highest in the world, including among younger generations.“

UNESCO (Hrsg.), „Happy Schools!” (2016), S. 28

 

Korean 15-year-olds reported being the unhappiest among all participating countries ...

Südkorea: „Despite being one of the highest performing countries in PISA, 2012 results also showed that Korean 15-year-olds reported being the unhappiest among all participating countries. This unhappiness among Korean children appears to stem from the education system and, more specifically, from the pressure they face to excel academically.“

UNESCO (Hrsg.), „Happy Schools!” (2016), S. 29

 

Südkorea: Less than 6 per cent of students rest at home after school ...

Südkorea: „Although more than 60 per cent of students reported that they hoped to rest at home after school, in reality less than 6 per cent reported doing so. Similarly, while almost half of the children reported that they hoped to play with friends after school, only around 23 per cent did so in reality.“

UNESCO (Hrsg.), „Happy Schools!” (2016), S. 29

 

Students in Shanghai report more unhappiness and parental pressure ...

„Students in Shanghai report more unhappiness and parental pressure compared with their international peers.“

Weltbank (Hrsg.), „How Shanghai Does It“ (2016), Executive Summary, S. XXIV

 

Zhong kao, Shanghais rigorose Prüfung am Übergang von der Sekundarstufe I zur Sekundarstufe II ...

„At the end of lower secondary school (ninth grade), all students must take the Lower Secondary School Graduation Examination in Shanghai. The subjects tested include Chinese, math, English, physics, and chemistry. Physical education, lab operations, and moral ethics of students also factor into students’ final exam scores. The exam serves the dual purposes of selection into high schools and providing information on the overall performance of the basic education system. The total score on the exam determines the type of high school in which students will enroll: admission into highly selective comprehensive schools requires outstanding performance on the exam. […] Because of its primary purpose as a mechanism for selection into high school, the zhong kao has become increasingly high stakes for children in Shanghai. The test ultimately determines in which type of high school ninth-grade graduates can enroll.“

Weltbank (Hrsg.), „How Shanghai Does It“ (2016), S. 90f

 

Gao Kao, Shanghais rigorose Zentralmatura ...

„Students in Shanghai participate in the national college entrance exams (gao kao). Gao kao is a highly competitive and rigorous exam that students across the nation have to take at the end of high school (twelfth grade) to progress to tertiary education in China.“

Weltbank (Hrsg.), „How Shanghai Does It“ (2016), S. 92

 

Finding a healthier balance ...

„It will be increasingly important for Shanghai to find a healthier balance between academic excellence and students’ social and emotional well-being.“

Weltbank (Hrsg.), „How Shanghai Does It“ (2016), S. 143

 

High level of parental pressure and unhappiness in Shanghai ...

„Students in Shanghai report a high level of parental pressure and unhappiness when compared with their international peers.“

Weltbank (Hrsg.), „How Shanghai Does It“ (2016), S. 143

 

Downstream effects of high stakes tests on the lower levels of education in Shanghai ...

Shanghai: „The high stakes zhong kao at the end of ninth grade and the gao kao at high school graduation have tremendous downstream effects on the lower levels of education and continue to influence teaching and learning for testing purposes only.“

Weltbank (Hrsg.), „How Shanghai Does It“ (2016), S. 82

 

Students undergo intensive preparation for gao kao in Shanghai ...

Shanghai: „Students undergo intensive preparation for gao kao, dedicating the last year of high school almost exclusively to demanding school drills, practice tests, and after-school tutoring sessions.“

Weltbank (Hrsg.), „How Shanghai Does It“ (2016), S. 94

 

Druck aus der Schule ...

„Während in der OECD 10,8 Prozent der Kinder über viel Druck aus der Schule klagen, sind es in Deutschland nur 3,9 und in Österreich 4 Prozent.“

Die Presse online am 14. Oktober 2015

 

Suicide was the No. 1 cause of death among teens and young people in South Korea in 2013 ...

„Suicide was the No. 1 cause of death among teens and young people in South Korea in 2013, with the suicide rate rising over the past decade. […] 61.4 percent of young people between the ages 13 and 24 said they suffered from chronic stress in 2014, with pressure from school and work being the main contributors.“

Yonhap News Agency online am 28. April 2015

 

Students in most of the highest-performing countries/economies in PISA ...

„Students in most of the highest-performing countries/economies in PISA, such as Hong Kong-China, Japan, Korea, Macao-China, Shanghai-China, Singapore and Chinese Taipei, reported higher levels of anxiety than would have been expected given their performance.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „PISA in Focus 48“ (Februar 2015), S. 1

 

Die PISA-Ergebnisse von Shanghai ...

„Die PISA-Ergebnisse von Shanghai sind mit die besten. Aber wie zufrieden sind denn die Schüler, die oben auf der Rangliste sind? Chinesische Grundschüler haben weltweit mit die höchste Selbstmordrate, chinesische Studenten mit die höchste Burnout-Rate. Sie sind extrem erfolgreich bei PISA, aber nicht zufrieden mit ihrem Leben.“

Univ.-Prof. Dr. Klaus Zierer in Nida-Rümelin u. a., „Auf dem Weg in eine neue deutsche Bildungskatastrophe“ (2015), S. 107

 

Indien: Most of the students (63.5 %) reportedly felt stressed because of academic pressure ...

Indien: „Most of the students (63.5 %) reportedly felt stressed because of academic pressure. […] About two-thirds (66.0 %) of the students reported that their parents pressurize them for better academic performance.“

Univ.-Prof. Dr. Sibnath Deb u. a., „Academic Stress, Parental Pressure, Anxiety and Mental Health among Indian High School Students“. In: „International Journal of Psychology and Behavioral Sciences“ 2015, 5(1), S. 28f

 

Indien: Parental pressure for better academic performance ...

Indien: „Parental pressure for better academic performance was found to be mostly responsible for academic stress, as reported by 66.0 % of the students. The majority of the parents criticized their children by comparing the latter’s performance with that of the best performer in the class.“

Univ.-Prof. Dr. Sibnath Deb u. a., „Academic Stress, Parental Pressure, Anxiety and Mental Health among Indian High School Students“. In: „International Journal of Psychology and Behavioral Sciences“ 2015, 5(1), S. 31

 

Indien: Some students cannot cope with the demands anymore and emotionally collapse ...

Indien: „Pushed by the parents to ‘be the best’ in art or music lessons and under pressure to score well in school, some students cannot cope with the demands anymore and emotionally collapse when the stress is high. Constantly pushed to perform better in both academic and extra-curricular activities, some children develop deep rooted nervous disorders in early childhood.“

Univ.-Prof. Dr. Sibnath Deb u. a., „Academic Stress, Parental Pressure, Anxiety and Mental Health among Indian High School Students“. In: „International Journal of Psychology and Behavioral Sciences“ 2015, 5(1), S. 31

 

Indien: More than half of the parents appoint 3 to 4 private tutors or even more for their wards ...

Indien: „More than half of the parents appoint 3 to 4 private tutors or even more for their wards. On days when there are no academic tuitions, there are art or music lessons. The students hardly get time to watch TV, to play or to interact with neighbours freely or even to get adequate sleep. Naturally such students end up being nervous wrecks when the examination pressure mounts.“

Univ.-Prof. Dr. Sibnath Deb u. a., „Academic Stress, Parental Pressure, Anxiety and Mental Health among Indian High School Students“. In: „International Journal of Psychology and Behavioral Sciences“ 2015, 5(1), S. 31

 

Examination hell ...

„OECD data indicate that there are a number of high-achieving nations where many students are not happy with school. These high achievement/low engagement systems include Korea, where students describe their secondary school experience as ‚Examination Hell‘, and Finland.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „Improving Schools in Scotland“ (2015), S. 121

 

Students in North America and 15-year-old students in Great Britain ...

„Students in North America and 15-year-old students in Great Britain consistently report higher school pressure than students from other regions. In contrast, students from Germanic countries report the lowest levels of school pressure.“

Univ.-Prof. Dr. Don A. Klinger u. a., „Cross-national trends in perceived school pressure by gender and age from 1994 to 2010“ in „European Journal of Public Health“, Vol. 25, Suppl. 2, 2015, S. 54

 

Too much pressure is not desirable ...

„While some pressure may have a positive effect on students’ educational outcomes, too much pressure is not desirable. […] The variation across OECD countries is high, with almost 30 % in Turkey feeling pressured as compared to only 4 % in Germany and Austria.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „How’s Life? 2015“ (2015), S. 168

 

Children in Korea are not happy ...

„South Korea was ranked at 64th (Anm.: unter 65 Teilnehmerstaaten) when children were asked how happy they were in school. Other indicators such as suicide rates among children and adolescents have also shown that children in Korea are not happy.“

Univ.-Prof. Dr. Bong Joo Lee u. a., „Children's Worlds National Report South Korea“ (2014), S. 3

 

In Austria, France, Hungary and the Netherlands children are at least pressured ...

„In Austria, France, Hungary and the Netherlands children are at least pressured by school work and are also in the best performing group in liking school a lot. Contrast this with Finland which has one of the highest proportions of young people feeling pressured by school work and one of the lowest proportions of liking school a lot.“

UNICEF (Hrsg.), „Children’s Subjective Well-being in Rich Countries“ (2013), S. 13


Tutoring is driven by competitive pressures in an increasingly globalised world ...

„Tutoring is driven by competitive pressures in an increasingly globalised world. Many governments pay strong heed to rankings in cross-national assessments. […] Some governments in turn promote competition through public ranking of achievement by schools; and schools promote competition through public ranking of achievement by pupils.“

Univ.-Prof. Dr. Mark Bray, „Shadow Education: Comparative Perspectives on the Expansion and Implications of Private Supplementary Tutoring“ in „Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences“ 77 (2013) S. 416

 

Governments see education as an instrument for competitiveness in international markets ...

„Governments see education as an instrument for competitiveness in international markets, and this view gets translated into pressure on young people to achieve grades by all means including private tutoring.“

Univ.-Prof. Dr. Mark Bray, „Shadow Education: Comparative Perspectives on the Expansion and Implications of Private Supplementary Tutoring“ in „Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences“ 77 (2013) S. 416

 

Südkorea: Hoher Leistungsdruck durch Eltern ...

Südkorea: „In the highly competitive Korean society, parental pressure is high and the burden of private tutoring increases every year.“

Kyung Suk Chang, „Language education in Japan and Korea“. In: OECD (Hrsg.), „Languages in a Global World“ (2012), S. 284