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Angst vor Mobbing und schlechten Ergebnissen in Prüfungen führen zu enormem Stress unter Japans Schülern ...

„Angst vor Mobbing und schlechten Ergebnissen in Prüfungen führen zu enormem Stress unter Japans Schülern. […] Das Land hat die höchste Selbstmordrate der G7 Länder, jährlich nehmen sich ca. 20.000 Menschen das Leben. Während die Gesamtzahl zwar sinkt, steigt die Selbstmordrate bei jungen Erwachsenen, gerade wenn sie ihren ersten Job beginnen oder die Schule wieder los geht.“

sumikai.com am 3. September 2017

 

Schools where the incidence of bullying is high by international standards score 47 points lower in science

„Schools where the incidence of bullying is high by international standards (more than 10 % of students are frequently bullied) score 47 points lower in science, on average, than schools where bullying is less frequent (schools where less than 5 % of students are frequently bullied). This difference in performance between the two types of schools remains substantial (around 25 score points) even after accounting for differences in schools’ socio-economic profile.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „PISA In Focus 74“ (Juli 2017), S. 3

 

Being bullied is one of the most severe forms of stress that children can experience ...

„Being bullied is one of the most severe forms of stress that children can experience. Prolonged exposure to the stress hormone cortisol can alter parts of the brain architecture, such as the amygdala and the hippocampus, that are critical for regulating emotions. These negative effects are more problematic for young people because the body’s system for handling stress is particularly sensitive during this period of development.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „PISA In Focus 74“ (Juli 2017), S. 4

 

Bullying can lead to depression, anxiety and sleep disorders ...

„On average across OECD countries, about 42 % of students who are frequently bullied – but only 15 % of students who are not frequently bullied – reported feeling like an outsider at school. Bullying can lead to depression, anxiety and sleep disorders. About 26 % of frequently bullied students reported relatively low satisfaction with life (a value less than or equal to 4 on a scale from 0 to 10). Only around 10 % of students who are not frequently bullied reported such low satisfaction with their life.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „PISA In Focus 74“ (Juli 2017), S. 4

 

Victims of bullying often decide to stay out of school ...

„On average across OECD countries, about 9% of frequently bullied students (but only 4% of students who are not frequently bullied) reported that they had skipped school more than three or four times in the two weeks prior to the PISA test.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „PISA In Focus 74“ (Juli 2017), S. 4

 

Mobbing als zentraler Risikofaktor ...

„Mobbing ist einer der zentralen Risikofaktoren für das Auftreten nicht nur psychischer Erkrankungen, sondern auch von selbstverletzendem Verhalten und Suizidalität im Kindes- und Jugendalter.“

Dr. Michael Kaess, Jugendpsychiater, Süddeutsche Zeitung online am 17. Jänner 2017

 

Students attending schools where bullying is frequent score lower ...

„On average across OECD countries, students attending schools where bullying is frequent, by international standards, score 47 points lower in science than students in schools where bullying occurs less frequently.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „PISA In Focus 2017/71“ (April 2017), S. 2

 

Cybermobbing in Deutschlands Schulen ...

Deutschland: „In 31 % der Schulen tritt mindestens mehrmals im Monat eine Form von Cybermobbing auf, in weiteren 39 % der Schulen finden solche Vorkommnisse seltener als monatlich statt. Lediglich 24 % der befragten Lehrkräfte geben an, im Lauf des vergangenen Jahres keinen konkreten Fall von Cybermobbing bei ihren Schülern erlebt zu haben. 6 % konnten hierzu keine Aussage machen.“

Bündnis gegen Cybermobbing (Hrsg.), „Cyberlife II. Spannungsfeld zwischen Faszination und Gefahr. Cybermobbing bei Schülerinnen und Schülern“ (2017), S. 47

 

Beobachtete Folgen von Cybermobbing ...

„Am häufigsten beobachten Lehrer (74 %) bei den betroffenen Schülern niedergeschlagene bzw. bedrückte Stimmungen. Fast jeder Zweite bemerkte zudem Angstzustände (48 %) und ein Leistungsabfall in der Schule (47 %). Weitere häufiger beobachtete Symptome sind Konzentrationsprobleme (42 %), plötzliche Verschlossenheit (40 %) und häufiges Fehlen im Unterricht (32 %).“

Bündnis gegen Cybermobbing (Hrsg.), „Cyberlife II. Spannungsfeld zwischen Faszination und Gefahr. Cybermobbing bei Schülerinnen und Schülern“ (2017), S. 47

 

Gefährliches Schweigen ...

„Many victims of school violence and bullying do not tell anyone about their experience. Reasons include lack of trust in adults, including teachers, fear of repercussions or reprisals, feelings of guilt, shame or confusion, concerns that they will not be taken seriously or not knowing where to seek help. […] School violence and bullying harms the physical health and emotional well-being of children and adolescents.“

UNESCO (Hrsg.), „School Violence and Bullying“ (2017), S. 9

 

Cyberbullying is a growing problem ...

„Cyberbullying is a growing problem. Most available data on the prevalence of cyberbullying is from surveys conducted in industrialised countries, and this suggests that the proportion of children and adolescents who are affected by cyberbullying ranges from 5 % to 21 % and that girls appear to be more likely to experience cyberbullying than boys.“

UNESCO (Hrsg.), „School Violence and Bullying“ (2017), S. 9

 

Those who are bullied are also more likely than those who are not bullied to experience interpersonal difficulties ...

„Those who are bullied are also more likely than those who are not bullied to experience interpersonal difficulties, to be depressed, lonely or anxious, to have low self-esteem and to have suicidal thoughts or to attempt suicide.“

UNESCO (Hrsg.), „School Violence and Bullying“ (2017), S. 9

 

Victims of cyberbullying in the USA ...

„In the USA, according to the 2013 Youth Risk Behaviour Survey, 15 % of children in grades 9-12 were bullied electronically through emails, chat rooms, instant messaging, websites or texting in the past year. Girls were more than twice as likely to report having been victims of cyberbullying than boys, at 21 % and 9 % respectively.“

UNESCO (Hrsg.), „School Violence and Bullying“ (2017), S. 23

 

Bullying leads victims to suicide or attempted suicide, anxiety, depression and self-harm ...

„In many cases, bullying leads victims to suicide or attempted suicide, anxiety, depression and self-harm. Being a perpetrator of bullying is associated with later violent behaviour and anti-social personality disorder.“

NESET (Hrsg.), „How to Prevent and Tackle Bullying and School Violence“ (2017), S. 6

 

The prevalence of bullying varies considerably across Europe ...

„The prevalence of bullying varies considerably across Europe. Lithuania, Belgium, Estonia, Austria and Latvia are some of the countries with relatively high victimisation rates between around 20 % and 30 %, compared to the lower rates of Denmark, Sweden, Czech Republic, Croatia, Italy and Spain below 10 %.“

NESET (Hrsg.), „How to Prevent and Tackle Bullying and School Violence“ (2017), S. 6

 

Victims are likely to experience low self-esteem, anxiety, depression, and suicidal ideation ...

„Victims are likely to experience low self-esteem, anxiety, depression, and suicidal ideation. Victimisation (i.e. being bullied) has also been linked to lower academic achievement and other behaviours such as disengagement, absenteeism and early school leaving.“

NESET (Hrsg.), „How to Prevent and Tackle Bullying and School Violence“ (2017), S. 18

 

Umfrage unter Deutschlands LehrerInnen ...

„Cybermobbing wird ein immer größeres Phänomen. 77 Prozent der Befragten sehen eine Zunahme von Formen des Mobbings über das Internet. Fast jede dritte befragte Lehrkraft gab an, dass es Fälle an der Schule gab.“

bildungsklick.de am 14. November 2016

 

All actors, including bystanders, and the school climate as a whole are affected ...

„Children who are bullied are likely to experience interpersonal difficulties, to be depressed, lonely or anxious, to have low self-esteem and to suffer academically, but all actors, including bystanders, and the school climate as a whole are affected detrimentally.“

UNO, General Assembly (Hrsg.), „Protecting children from bullying. Report of the Secretary-General“ vom 26. Juli 2016, S. 4

 

Between 2010 and 2014 cyberbullying increased from 8 to 12 per cent ...

„In Europe, where over 80 per cent of children between 5 and 14 years of age use mobile telephones, it is reported that between 2010 and 2014 cyberbullying increased from 8 to 12 per cent, especially among girls and children at younger ages.“

UNO, General Assembly (Hrsg.), „Protecting children from bullying. Report of the Secretary-General“ vom 26. Juli 2016, S. 6

 

PULSS-Ergebnis ...

„Für eine Facette des sozialen Selbstkonzepts – die soziale Anerkennung – berichteten Schülerinnen und Schüler der Begabtenklassen im Vergleich zu denjenigen der Regelklassen über eine bessere soziale Akzeptanz durch Mitschülerinnen und Mitschüler.“

Univ.-Prof. Dr. Wolfgang Schneider u. a., „Ergebnisse der Folgestudie PULSS II (Laufzeit 2014–2015)“ (2016), S. 29

 

Knapp ein Drittel der befragten Schülerinnen und Schüler waren in den letzten paar Monaten Opfer von Bullying ...

„Knapp ein Drittel der befragten Schülerinnen und Schüler waren in den letzten paar Monaten Opfer von Bullying. Burschen sind im Vergleich zu Mädchen vermehrt Opfer. Am stärksten ist die Altersgruppe der 13-Jährigen (Anm.: 37 % der Mädchen und 45 % der Burschen) betroffen, mit zunehmenden Alter geht der Anteil der Betroffenen zurück.“

BMFJ (Hrsg.), „Fokus Jugend“ (2016), S. 54

 

Adults who experienced violence and/or neglect in childhood ...

„Adults who experienced violence and/or neglect in childhood have lower levels of education, more limited opportunities for employment, lower earnings, and fewer assets.“

Gillian Huebner u. a., „Beyond Survival: The Case for Investing in Young Children Globally“ (2016), S. 16

 

Both safety and order are positively associated with student outcomes ...

„Safety and order in schools refer to the degree of physical and emotional security, along with an orderly disciplinary climate. Both safety and order are positively associated with student outcomes in a number of countries.“

Dr. Trude Nilsen u. a., „Teacher Quality, Instructional Quality and Student Outcomes“ (2016), S. 53f

 

The most negative association with science performance is (...) students bullying other students

„The most negative association with science performance, both before and after accounting for the socio-economic status of students and schools, is students lacking respect for their teachers, followed by student truancy, students skipping classes and students intimidating or bullying other students.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „PISA 2015 Results (Volume II): Policies and Practices for Successful Schools (2016), S. 93

 

Mobbying nirgends so häufig wie in Österreich und Estland...

„Mobbing kommt dem Bericht (Anm.: OECD-Studie „How’s Life“ (2015)) zufolge nirgends so oft vor wie in Österreich und Estland. Ganze 17,5 Prozent der österreichischen 11-, 13- und 15-Jährigen gaben an, in den vergangenen zwei Monaten mindestens zweimal von Schulkameraden körperlich oder verbal angegriffen worden zu sein.“

Die Presse online am 14. Oktober 2015

 

Von wiederholtem Bullying 14,1 % SchülerInnen betroffen ...

„Von wiederholtem Bullying, also mehrmals monatlich oder öfter, waren nach eigenen Angaben 14,1 % der (Anm.: 11- bis 17-jährigen) Schülerinnen und Schüler betroffen.“

Bundesministerium für Gesundheit (Hrsg.), „Gesundheit und Gesundheitsverhalten von österreichischen Schülerinnen und Schülern“ (2015), S. 53

 

The largest difference in prevalence of bullying victimization was measured in Sweden ...

„The largest difference in prevalence of bullying victimization was measured in Sweden 2011, where 8.6% of the native children were bullied, to be compared with the 27.8% of the immigrant children.“

Ylva Bjereld u. a., „Differences in prevalence of bullying victimization between native and immigrant children in the Nordic countries“. In: „Child: care, health and development“, 41, 4, 2015, S. 593

 

Children who are perceived as being different from their peers ...

„Children who are perceived as being different from their peers in their appearance or in other ways, such as overweight children, those diagnosed with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), or children with hearing or speech problems, are at a higher risk for being bullied.“

Ylva Bjereld u. a., „Differences in prevalence of bullying victimization between native and immigrant children in the Nordic countries“. In: „Child: care, health and development“, 41, 4, 2015, S. 594

 

Immediate harm and distress as well as longer term impacts ...

„Children and young people who are bullied often suffer immediate harm and distress as well as longer term impacts on their social, physical and mental health.“

Dr. Stacey Fox, „Better Systems, Better Chances“ (2015), S. 283

 

Victims of bullying likely to experience problems, such as depression ...

„Victims of bullying are likely to experience several problems, such as depression, anxiety and loneliness, which can persist into adulthood.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „How’s Life? 2015“ (2015), S. 171

 

The incidence of bullying among school children ...

„The incidence of bullying among school children is high in some OECD countries, such as Estonia, Austria and Belgium, where more than 15 % of teenagers report having experienced bullying twice or more over the past 2 months.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „How’s Life? 2015“ (2015), S. 173

 

Tenth grade students with low psychological health ...

„The percentages of tenth grade students with low psychological health were 6.5 % for those who had not been bullied, 12.1 % for those who had been bullied only in the past, 30.7 % for those bullied only currently, and 44.6% for those bullied both in the past and present (nearly 7 times the percentage of those who had not been bullied).“

Dr. Laura Bogart u. a., „Peer Victimization in Fifth Grade and Health in Tenth Grade“ in „PEDIATRICS“, Volume 133 (März 2014), S. 443

 

Students who are bullied are more likely to experience academic difficulties ...

„Students who are bullied are more likely to experience academic difficulties, including underachievement, lower attendance and dropping out, among others.“

UNICEF (Hrsg.), „Hidden in Plain Sight: A statistical analysis of violence against children“ (2014), S. 120

 

Children who are bullied are likely to experience a range of negative psychological outcomes ...

„Children who are bullied are likely to experience a range of negative psychological outcomes, including depression, anxiety, thoughts of suicide and low life satisfaction. […] The social, emotional and psychological effects of bullying can be severe and can persist throughout childhood into adulthood.“

UNICEF (Hrsg.), „Hidden in Plain Sight: A statistical analysis of violence against children“ (2014), S. 120

 

The psychological and behavioural consequences of bullying victimisation ...

„The psychological and behavioural consequences of bullying victimisation are detrimental. Aside from its immediate health and psychological impact, being a bully victim in school is a predictor of low self-esteem, anxiety, and depression during adulthood, and has a negative impact on subsequent socio-economic attainment.“

Dr. Stella Chatzitheochari, „Bullying experiences among disabled children and young people in England“ (2014), S. 4

 

Increased risk of being bullied among students with special educational needs ...

„A number of studies using different methodologies have reported an increased risk of being bullied among students with SEN (Anm.: students with special educational needs).“

Dr. Stella Chatzitheochari, „Bullying experiences among disabled children and young people in England“ (2014), S. 7

 

Being frequently bullied associated with an increased risk ...

„Being frequently bullied was associated with an increased risk of both depression and anxiety disorders at age 45, and also with suicidality. Children who were occasionally bullied were at increased risk of depression.“

Dr. Ryu Takizawa u. a., „Adult Health Outcomes of Childhood Bullying Victimization“ (2014), S. 3

 

Bullying and lower achievement in school ...

„TIMSS and PIRLS 2011 results showed that students who attended schools with disorderly environments and who reported more frequent bullying had much lower achievement than their counterparts in safe and orderly schools.“

IEA (Hrsg.), „TIMSS and PIRLS 2011: Relationships among reading, mathematics, and science achievement at the fourth grade“ (2013), S. 113

 

Bullying has been identified as an important risk factor ...

Bullying has been identified as an important risk factor for suicidal ideations and behaviours in adolescents and youth.“

Univ.-Prof. Dr. Dianne Byers u. a., „Teachers' attitudes towards overt and covert bullying, and perceived efficacy to intervene“ in „Australian Journal of Teacher Education“, 36(11), November 2011

 

Opfer und Täter ...

„Jeder vierte männliche Jugendliche war im letzten halben Jahr mindestens zweimal Opfer direkter Gewalthandlungen, jeder dritte war mindestens zweimal Täter.“

Univ.-Prof. Dr. Ferdinand Eder, „PISA 2009, Nationale Zusatzanalysen – Einzelzusammenfassungen“ (2011), S. 3

 

Österreichische Jugendliche weisen vielfältige und häufige Gewalterfahrungen auf ...

„Insgesamt zeigen die auf Selbsteinschätzungen beruhenden Ergebnisse, dass österreichische Jugendliche vielfältige und häufige Gewalterfahrungen aufweisen. Die Angaben für direkte Gewalterfahrungen fielen noch höher aus als in den beiden HBSC Studien der OECD.“

Mag. Dr. Dagmar Strohmeier, „PISA 2009, Nationale Zusatzanalysen – Einzelzusammenfassungen“ (2011), S. 26