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Schülerinnen und Schüler an Wochentagen rd. 3 Stunden online ...

„Die Schülerinnen und Schüler verbringen heute außerhalb der Schule an Wochentagen rd. 3 Stunden online, und an Wochenenden sind es 3,5 Stunden pro Tag.“
OECD (Hrsg.), „PISA 2018 Ergebnisse. Was Schülerinnen und Schüler wissen und können“ (2019), S. 37

USA: The amount of time adolescents spend on screen activities has steadily increased ...

USA: „The rise of digital media and the fall of everything else over the last decade, the amount of time adolescents spend on screen activities (especially digital media such as gaming, social media, texting, and time online) has steadily increased, accelerating after 2012 after the majority of Americans owned smartphones. By 2017, the average 12th grader (17-18 years old) spent more than 6 hours a day of leisure time on just three digital media activities (internet, social media, and texting). By 2018, 95 % of United States adolescents had access to a smartphone, and 45% said they were online 'almost constantly'.“
Univ.-Prof. Dr. John F. Helliwell u.a., World Happiness Report 2019 (2019), S. 90.

USA: The way adolescents socialize ...

USA: „The way adolescents socialize has fundamentally shifted, moving toward online activities and away from face-to-face social interaction. Other activities that typically do not involve screens have also declined: Adolescents spent less time attending religious services, less time reading books and magazines, and (perhaps most crucially) less time sleeping. These declines are not due to time spent on homework, which has declined or stayed the same.“
Univ.-Prof. Dr. John F. Helliwell u.a., World Happiness Report 2019 (2019), S. 90.

USA: Adolescents and young adults who spend more time on digital media are lower in well-being ...

USA: „Several studies have found that adolescents and young adults who spend more time on digital media are lower in well-being. For example, girls spending 5 or more hours a day on social media are three times more likely to be depressed than non-users, and heavy internet users (vs. light users) are twice as likely to be unhappy. Sleeping, face-to-face social interaction, and attending religious services – less frequent activities among iGen teens compared to previous generations – are instead linked to more happiness.“
Univ.-Prof. Dr. John F. Helliwell u.a., World Happiness Report 2019 (2019), S. 91.

USA: Addictive behaviors ...

USA: „The concept of addiction was originally applied by psychologists and public health specialists mainly or exclusively to substances such as tobacco, alcohol, marijuana, opioids (natural and synthetic), and other drugs. More recently, many psychologists have come to regard various behaviors as potential addictions as well. Such addictive behaviors include gambling; social media use, video gaming, shopping, consuming unhealthy foods, exercising, engaging in extreme sports, engaging in risky sexual behaviors, and others. Such behaviors may become compulsive, with individuals pursuing them to excess, despite the awareness of their harmful nature to the individuals themselves and to those around them (including family and friends).“
Univ.-Prof. Dr. John F. Helliwell u.a., World Happiness Report 2019 (2019), S. 124.

Untersuchung zur online verbrachten Zeit ...

„On average, disadvantaged students spent 2.3 hours more online each week. […] Disadvantaged students in Austria and Spain spent 6.3 hours more.“
Dr. Adrien Lorenceau u. a., „Upgrading the ICT questionnaire items in PISA 2021“ (2019), S. 15
Anm.: Als „disadvantaged students“ werden in dieser Untersuchung diejenigen bezeichnet, die zum sozioökonomisch schwächsten Viertel der Gesellschaft gehören.

In the United Kingdom, recent results show that 52 % of 3-4 year-olds and 82 % of 5-7 year-olds are online ...

„In the United Kingdom, recent results show that 52 % of 3-4 year-olds and 82 % of 5-7 year-olds are online. Children generally have their first experience with digital technologies before the age of two.“
OECD (Hrsg.), Educating 21st Century Children (2019), S. 35.

Extreme Internet users ...

„PISA defines 'extreme Internet users' as those who spend more than 6 hours online per day outside of school. In 2015, 26 % of respondents were considered extreme Internet users on weekends, versus 16 % during the week.“
OECD (Hrsg.), Educating 21st Century Children (2019), S. 36.

About 9 % of 15-year olds in the OECD reported being subject to cyberbullying ...

„About 9 % of 15-year olds in the OECD reported being subject to cyberbullying although the share could be higher as victims are often reluctant to self-report. In 24 of the 28 countries for which data were available, young girls […] were more likely than boys to report having been cyberbullied, but they are also more likely to chat online daily or almost daily than boys.“
OECD (Hrsg.), Going Digital (2019), S. 111.

Brain abnormalities ...

„A study among 14-year-olds in Belgium found that frequent gamers had brain abnormalities compared to other teens, potentially resulting from dopamine releases associated with video games.“
OECD (Hrsg.), How's Life in the Digital Age (2019), S. 60.

Extreme use of the Internet among children is associated with lower life satisfaction and school results ...

„A longitudinal study run on 3 000 children in Singapore found that extreme video game use and problems such as social phobia, attention deficit disorder, anxiety and depression often occur together and are likely to be mutually reinforcing. Results from the PISA study show that extreme use of the Internet among children is associated with lower life satisfaction and school results, even when controlling for socio-economic backgrounds.“
OECD (Hrsg.), How's Life in the Digital Age (2019), S. 60.

Extreme Internet use among young people is common in OECD countries ...

„Extreme Internet use among young people is common in OECD countries. On average, 24 % of 15-year-olds spend more than 6 hours a day on the Internet on weekend days, and a figure that is as high as 43 % in Chile and 37 % in the United Kingdom. Culture may play a role in the extent to which children spend long periods of time online, with the lowest share of extreme users among children in Japan and Korea. The level of educational achievement of parents also seem to be associated with extreme Internet use, with children of highly educated parents less likely to be extreme Internet users in most countries.“
OECD (Hrsg.), How's Life in the Digital Age (2019), S. 60f.

The majority of sedentary behaviour in children is now spent engaged with screens ...

„With the omnipresence of screen-based devices in modern society, the majority of sedentary behaviour in children is now spent engaged with screens. Recent reports suggest that youth in the US spend an average of 7.5 hours per day engaged in screen-based activities.“
Dr. Jeremy J. Walsh u. a., Associations between 24-hour movement behaviours and global cognition in a cross-sectional sample of US children (2019), S. 2.

Interfering effects of social media multi-tasking and/or the negative impact of excessive screen time on sleep ...

„Emerging evidence suggests that higher rates of mobile device and social media use has an unfavorable relationship with attention, memory, impulse control, and academic performance, possibly due to interfering effects of social media multi-tasking and/or the negative impact of excessive screen time on sleep.“
Dr. Jeremy J. Walsh u. a., Associations between 24-hour movement behaviours and global cognition in a cross-sectional sample of US children (2019), S. 7.

Zwei Prozent der Gesamtbevölkerung und vier bis sechs Prozent der jungen Menschen von Onlinesucht betroffen ...

„Man kann davon ausgehen, dass zwei Prozent der Gesamtbevölkerung und vier bis sechs Prozent der jungen Menschen von Onlinesucht betroffen sind.“
Dr. Roland Mader, Primarius am Anton Proksch Institut, ORF Wien online am 2. November 2018

Zusammenhang zwischen dem Fernsehkonsum und der schulischen Leistung ...

„Es besteht ein Zusammenhang zwischen dem Fernsehkonsum und der schulischen Leistung: Je höher der Fernsehkonsum ist, desto schlechter ist die schulische Leistung.“
Univ.-Prof. Dr. John Hattie u. a., „Visible Learning. Auf den Punkt gebracht“ (2018), S. 57

Time spent online increased on average by about 40 minutes between 2012 and 2015 ...

„PISA 2015 data revealed that, on average across OECD countries, students spent almost two and a half hours online outside of school on a typical weekday, and more than three hours on a typical weekend. Time spent online increased on average by about 40 minutes between 2012 and 2015, both on weekdays and weekends.“

Julie Hooft Graafland, „New technologies and 21st century children“ (2018), S. 9

 

75 % of 15-year-old boys played one-player games regularly ...

„Across OECD countries, 75 % of 15-year-old boys played one-player games regularly, and more than 13 % played every day. 70 % of 15-year-old boys played collaborative online games regularly, and almost 20 % did so every day.“

Julie Hooft Graafland, „New technologies and 21st century children“ (2018), S. 11

 

54 % of students who took the 2015 PISA assessment reported that they felt bad when no Internet connection was available ...

„On average, 54 % of students who took the 2015 PISA assessment reported that they felt bad when no Internet connection was available. […] In European countries, socio-economically advantaged students were less likely to report that they felt bad without available Internet connection, compared to disadvantaged students.“

Julie Hooft Graafland, „New technologies and 21st century children“ (2018), S. 12

 

Extreme Internet users ...

„PISA defines children as 'extreme Internet users' when they spend more than 6 hours online per day outside school. In 2015, 16 % of 15 year olds among OECD countries could be considered 'extreme Internet users' during weekdays, and 26 % during weekends. 'Extreme Internet users' reported less life satisfaction and were more likely to be bullied at school. […] 'Extreme Internet users' performed worse across all subjects in the PISA test, even after accounting for differences in socio-economic backgrounds.“

Julie Hooft Graafland, „New technologies and 21st century children“ (2018), S. 12

 

Psychological factors of extreme Internet use ...

„Psychological factors also influence extreme Internet use. Children who experience anxiety, depression, psychological distress or have symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or autism spectrum disorder (ASD), are more likely to be 'extreme Internet users'. Note that some of these indicators can also be consequences of extreme Internet use.“

Julie Hooft Graafland, „New technologies and 21st century children“ (2018), S. 32

 

Eighth-graders who spend 10 or more hours a week on social media ...

„Eighth-graders who spend 10 or more hours a week on social media are 56 percent more likely to say they’re unhappy than those who devote less time to social media. […] Those who spend six to nine hours a week on social media are still 47 percent more likely to say they are unhappy than those who use social media even less. The opposite is true of in-person interactions. Those who spend an above-average amount of time with their friends in person are 20 percent less likely to say they’re unhappy than those who hang out for a below-average amount of time.

Univ.-Prof. Dr. Jean M. Twenge, „Have Smartphones Destroyed a Generation?". In: The Atlantic online vom September 2017

 

Eighth-graders who are heavy users of social media increase their risk of depression ...

„Eighth-graders who are heavy users of social media increase their risk of depression by 27 percent, while those who play sports, go to religious services, or even do homework more than the average teen cut their risk significantly. Teens who spend three hours a day or more on electronic devices are 35 percent more likely to have a risk factor for suicide, such as making a suicide plan.“

Univ.-Prof. Dr. Jean M. Twenge, „Have Smartphones Destroyed a Generation?". In: The Atlantic online vom September 2017

 

Girls use social media more often ...

„Forty-eight percent more girls said they often felt left out in 2015 than in 2010, compared with 27 percent more boys. Girls use social media more often, giving them additional opportunities to feel excluded and lonely when they see their friends or classmates getting together without them.“

Univ.-Prof. Dr. Jean M. Twenge, „Have Smartphones Destroyed a Generation?". In: The Atlantic online vom September 2017

 

The smartphone is cutting into teens’ sleep ...

"Many now sleep less than seven hours most nights. Sleep experts say that teens should get about nine hours of sleep a night; a teen who is getting less than seven hours a night is significantly sleep deprived. Fifty-seven percent more teens were sleep deprived in 2015 than in 1991. In just the four years from 2012 to 2015, 22 percent more teens failed to get seven hours of sleep. The increase is suspiciously timed, once again starting around when most teens got a smartphone. Two national surveys show that teens who spend three or more hours a day on electronic devices are 28 percent more likely to get less than seven hours of sleep than those who spend fewer than three hours, and teens who visit social-media sites every day are 19 percent more likely to be sleep deprived.“

Univ.-Prof. Dr. Jean M. Twenge, „Have Smartphones Destroyed a Generation?". In: The Atlantic online vom September 2017

 

Durchschnittliche Internet-Nutzung ...

Deutschland: „12- bis 17-Jährige nutzen Computerspiele und das Internet durchschnittlich rund 22 Stunden und 18- bis 25-Jährige durchschnittlich rund 21 Stunden pro Woche.“

BZgA (Hrsg.), „Die Drogenaffinität Jugendlicher in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland 2015, Teilband Computerspiele und Internet“ (2017), S. 9

 

Betroffen von computerspiel- oder internetbezogener Störung ...

Deutschland: „Auf Grundlage der „Compulsive Internet Use Scale“ (CIUS) ist bei 5,8 % der 12- bis 17-jährigen Jugendlichen und 2,8 % der 18- bis 25-jährigen jungen Erwachsenen von einer computerspiel- oder internetbezogenen Störung auszugehen. In der Altersgruppe der 12- bis 17-Jährigen sind die weiblichen Jugendlichen (7,1 %) stärker betroffen als die männlichen Jugendlichen (4,5 %).

BZgA (Hrsg.), „Die Drogenaffinität Jugendlicher in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland 2015, Teilband Computerspiele und Internet“ (2017), S. 9

 

The relationship between mental health and Problematic Internet Use ...

„The relationship between mental health and PIU (Anm.: PIU = Problematic Internet Use) appears to be bi-directional, as although poor mental health can be a strong precursor to PIU, studies have also found that PIU can predict poor mental health.“

Univ.-Prof. Dr. Emma Louise Anderson u. a., „Internet use and Problematic Internet Use“. In: „International Journal of Adolescence and Youth“, Vol. 22, 2017, S. 446

 

Problematic Internet Use ...

„A home environment, where there is good communication about IU (Anm.: IU = Internet Use) was shown to lower an adolescent’s PIU (Anm.: PIU = Problematic Internet Use) risk. Furthermore, less protective parenting, low family functioning, lower parental education and divorced or less positively related parental couples, were found to be related to higher PIU.“

Univ.-Prof. Dr. Emma Louise Anderson u. a., „Internet use and Problematic Internet Use“. In: „International Journal of Adolescence and Youth“, Vol. 22, 2017, S. 447

 

Students who spend more than six hours on line per weekday outside of school ...

„Students who spend more than six hours on line per weekday outside of school are particularly at risk of reporting that they feel lonely at school, and that they arrived late for school or skipped days of school in the two weeks prior to the PISA test.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „Students, Computers and Learning“ (2015), S. 16

 

Wellbeing at school is strongly related to the electronic media diet outside of school ...

„Wellbeing at school is strongly related to the electronic media diet outside of school. Parents, schools and health professionals can work together to monitor and plan children’s use of new media.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „Students, Computers and Learning“ (2015), S. 189

 

Bildschirm statt Beziehung zu Eltern ...

„Adolescents who spent more time television viewing had greater risk of low attachment to parents and peers. These associations remained significant after accounting for sex and family factors. For every extra hour spent television viewing, there was a 13 % increase in the risk of having low attachment to parents and a 24 % increase in the risk of having low attachment to peers.“

Dr. Rosalina Richards u. a., „Adolescent Screen Time and Attachment to Parents and Peers“. In: „Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine“, Vol. 164, No. 3, März 2010, S. 260

 

Ergebnis einer Studie über die Beziehung Jugendlicher zu ihren Eltern ...

„Adolescents who watch more television, spend more time playing on a computer, and spend less time reading and doing homework are more likely to report poor attachment to parents.“

Dr. Rosalina Richards u. a., „Adolescent Screen Time and Attachment to Parents and Peers“. In: „Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine“, Vol. 164, No. 3, März 2010, S. 261f