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Japan: Jedes vierte Kind an weiterführenden Schulen leidet unter Depressionen ...

Japan: „Laut einer Untersuchung von Kenzo Denda, Professor für Gesundheitswissenschaften an der Universität Hokkaido, leidet an weiterführenden Schulen jedes vierte Kind unter Depressionen. Häufig sei Mobbing ein wichtiger Grund dafür, und unter depressiven Kindern sei wiederum Suizid relativ häufiger.“
Frankfurter Rundschau online am 10. Oktober 2019.

Das Thema Mobbing hat in Japan Konjunktur ...

„Das Thema Mobbing hat in Japan Konjunktur, die Zahl bekannter Vorfälle stieg zuletzt auf einen Rekordwert. Für das Jahr 2017 dokumentierte das nationale Bildungsministerium 410.000 Fälle an den Grund-, Mittel- und Oberschulen des Landes, das sind 90000 mehr im Vergleich zum Vorjahr.“
Stuttgarter Zeitung online am 8. Oktober 2019.

Ergebnis einer Befragung der LehrerInnen Baden-Württembergs ...

„78 Prozent der befragten Lehrkräfte in Baden-Württemberg sehen eine Zunahme von Formen des Mobbings über das Internet. Fast jede vierte befragte Lehrkraft in Baden-Württemberg gab an, dass Fälle von Cybermobbing an der Schule vorkamen.“
„BBW Magazin“ vom Mai 2019, S. 7

Primary school students who do not speak the language of instruction at home report a lower sense of belonging ...

„Primary school students who do not speak the language of instruction at home report a lower sense of belonging and experience more bullying at school.“
EU-Kommission (Hrsg.), „Integrating Students from Migrant Backgrounds into Schools in Europe“ (2019), S. 9
Österreich und Irland bilden diesbezüglich Ausnahmen. (Quelle: ibidem, S. 184)

Those who speak the language of instruction at home usually report a higher sense of belonging ...

„Those who speak the language of instruction at home usually report a higher sense of belonging and fewer experiences of bullying at school than those who speak another language at home, in almost all education systems.“
EU-Kommission (Hrsg.), „Integrating Students from Migrant Backgrounds into Schools in Europe“ (2019), S. 42

Due to differences in culture, language, race and ethnicity, first generation immigrant children face higher rates of bullying victimisation ...

„Due to differences in culture, language, race and ethnicity, first generation immigrant children face higher rates of bullying victimisation than third generation and native born children. Children who arrived as migrants between 13 and 16 years of age are also more likely to report higher levels of bullying victimisation at school than students who arrived earlier.“
OECD (Hrsg.), Educating 21st Century Children (2019), S. 60.

Cyberbullying is associated with high levels of stress, social difficulties, depression and anxiety ...

„Cyberbullying is associated with high levels of stress, social difficulties, depression and anxiety. Compared to traditional bullying, those who have been cyberbullied report higher levels of anxiety, depression and social difficulties.“
OECD (Hrsg.), Educating 21st Century Children (2019), S. 188.

About 9 % of 15-year olds in the OECD reported being subject to cyberbullying ...

„About 9 % of 15-year olds in the OECD reported being subject to cyberbullying although the share could be higher as victims are often reluctant to self-report. In 24 of the 28 countries for which data were available, young girls […] were more likely than boys to report having been cyberbullied, but they are also more likely to chat online daily or almost daily than boys.“
OECD (Hrsg.), Going Digital (2019), S. 111.

Bullying can have detrimental consequences for children’s mental health ...

„Bullying can have detrimental consequences for children’s mental health and subjective well-being and can, in extreme cases, lead to suicide. Cyberbullying can be more harmful than traditional forms of bullying because the reach of humiliation is expanded to a large audience online, and because words and images can remain online indefinitely.“
OECD (Hrsg.), How's Life in the Digital Age (2019), S. 71.

Almost one in three students has been bullied ...

„Almost one in three students (32 %) has been bullied by their peers at school at least once in the last month.“
UNESCO (Hrsg.), Behind the numbers: ending school violence and bullying (2019), S. 7

Psychological bullying is the most common type of bullying ...

„In Europe and North America, psychological bullying is the most common type of bullying. Cyberbullying affects as many as one in ten children.“
UNESCO (Hrsg.), Behind the numbers: ending school violence and bullying (2019), S. 7

Physical bullying is more common among boys ...

„Physical bullying is more common among boys than among girls, while the opposite is true for psychological bullying.“
UNESCO (Hrsg.), Behind the numbers: ending school violence and bullying (2019), S. 7

Physical appearance is the most common reason for being bullied ...

„Children who are perceived to be 'different' in any way are more likely to be bullied. International surveys reveal that physical appearance is the most common reason for being bullied, with race, nationality or skin colour the second most common reason.“
UNESCO (Hrsg.), Behind the numbers: ending school violence and bullying (2019), S. 7

Cyberbullying is a growing problem ...

„Cyberbullying is a growing problem. Data from seven countries in Europe show that the proportion of children aged 11-16 years who use the Internet and who had experienced cyberbullying increased from 7 % in 2010 to 12 % in 2014.“
UNESCO (Hrsg.), Behind the numbers: ending school violence and bullying (2019), S. 8

Around one in ten children have experienced cyberbullying ...

„Available data suggest that around one in ten children have experienced cyberbullying. In Canada and Europe, 10.1 % have been cyberbullied via messages and 8.2 % have been cyberbullied via pictures.“
UNESCO (Hrsg.), Behind the numbers: ending school violence and bullying (2019), S. 18

Children who are frequently bullied are more likely to want to leave school after finishing secondary education ...

„Children who are frequently bullied are more likely to want to leave school after finishing secondary education than those who are not frequently bullied. PISA data found that almost 45 % of students who were frequently bullied, versus 35 % of those not frequently bullied, wanted to leave formal education after finishing secondary school.“
UNESCO (Hrsg.), Behind the numbers: ending school violence and bullying (2019), S. 32

PISA 2018: Some 23 % of students reported being bullied ...

PISA 2018: „Some 23 % of students reported being bullied at least a few times a month, on average across OECD countries.“
OECD (Hrsg.), „PISA 2018 Results. What School Life Means for Students’ Lives“ (2019), S. 15
Österreich liegt mit 23 % im OECD-Durchschnitt. (Quelle: OECD (Hrsg.), „PISA 2018 Results. What School Life Means for Students’ Lives“ (2019), Table III.B1.2.1

PISA 2018: Students who reported being bullied at least a few times a month ...

PISA 2018: „On average across OECD countries, students who reported being bullied at least a few times a month scored 21 points lower in reading than students who did not report so, after accounting for socio-economic status. […] Students who reported being frequently exposed to bullying also reported feeling sad, scared and less satisfied with their lives than students who did not report so.“
OECD (Hrsg.), „PISA 2018 Results. What School Life Means for Students’ Lives“ (2019), S. 46
In Österreich beträgt der Leistungsrückstand 22 Punkte. (Quelle: OECD (Hrsg.), „PISA 2018 Results. What School Life Means for Students’ Lives“ (2019), Table III.B1.2.6)

PISA 2018: On average across OECD countries, 23 % of students reported being bullied at least a few times a month ...

PISA 2018: „On average across OECD countries, 23 % of students reported being bullied at least a few times a month; 8 % of students were classified as being frequently bullied.“
OECD (Hrsg.), „PISA 2018 Results. What School Life Means for Students’ Lives“ (2019), S. 47
Österreich liegt diesbezüglich mit 23 % bzw. 7 % im OECD-Mittelfeld. (Quelle: OECD (Hrsg.), „PISA 2018 Results. What School Life Means for Students’ Lives“ (2019), Figure III.2.1)

PISA 2018: On average across OECD countries, 14 % of students reported that others made fun of them at least a few times a month ...

PISA 2018: „On average across OECD countries, 14 % of students reported that others made fun of them at least a few times a month; 10 % reported that they were the object of nasty rumours at school; and 9% reported that they were left out of things on purpose.“
OECD (Hrsg.), „PISA 2018 Results. What School Life Means for Students’ Lives“ (2019), S. 47
Österreich liegt diesbezüglich mit 14 %, 11 % bzw. 14 % über dem OECD-Durchschnitt. (Quelle: OECD (Hrsg.), „PISA 2018 Results. What School Life Means for Students’ Lives“ (2019), Figure III.2.1)

PISA 2018: On average across OECD countries, around 7 % of students reported that they got hit or pushed around by other students at least a few times a month ...

PISA 2018: „On average across OECD countries, around 7 % of students reported that they got hit or pushed around by other students at least a few times a month. Similar proportions of students reported that other students took away or destroyed things that belong to them and that they were threatened by others.“
OECD (Hrsg.), „PISA 2018 Results. What School Life Means for Students’ Lives“ (2019), S. 47
Österreich liegt diesbezüglich mit 7 % im OECD-Mittelfeld. (Quelle: OECD (Hrsg.), „PISA 2018 Results. What School Life Means for Students’ Lives“ (2019), Figure III.2.1)

PISA 2018: Learning hindered by students intimidating or bullying other students ...

PISA 2018: „On average across OECD countries, 24 % of students attended schools whose principals reported that learning is 'not at all' hindered, 64 % of students were in schools whose principals reported that learning is hindered 'very little', and 12 % of students were in schools whose principals reported that learning is hindered to 'some extent' or 'a lot' by students intimidating or bullying other students.“
OECD (Hrsg.), „PISA 2018 Results. What School Life Means for Students’ Lives“ (2019), S. 49
Die entsprechenden Werte Österreichs lauten 23 %, 64 % und 13 %. (Quelle: OECD (Hrsg.), „PISA 2018 Results. What School Life Means for Students’ Lives“ (2019), Table III.B1.2.8)

Both aggressors and victims tend to skip classes and drop out of school more often ...

„Research finds that both aggressors and victims tend to skip classes and drop out of school more often, and perform worse academically, than peers not involved in bullying.“
OECD (Hrsg.), „PISA 2018 Results. What School Life Means for Students’ Lives“ (2019), S. 52

PISA 2018: On average across OECD countries, students who reported that other students threatened them at least a few times a month scored 56 points lower ...

PISA 2018: „On average across OECD countries, students who reported that other students threatened them at least a few times a month scored 56 points lower in reading than students who reported that they were threatened by other students a few times a year or less frequently, after accounting for students’ and schools’ socio-economic profile.“
OECD (Hrsg.), „PISA 2018 Results. What School Life Means for Students’ Lives“ (2019), S. 54
In Österreich beträgt der Leistungsrückstand 65 Punkte. (Quelle: OECD (Hrsg.), „PISA 2018 Results. What School Life Means for Students’ Lives“ (2019), Table III.B1.2.6)

PISA 2018: Students who reported that they were the object of nasty rumours ...

PISA 2018: „In schools with the lowest percentage of students who reported that they were the object of nasty rumours (that is, schools in the bottom quarter of this indicator in their country/economy), the average reading score was 507 points. In schools with the highest percentage of these students (that is, schools in the top quarter of this indicator in their country/economy), the average reading score was 455 points.“
OECD (Hrsg.), „PISA 2018 Results. What School Life Means for Students’ Lives“ (2019), S. 54
Die entsprechenden Werte Österreichs lauten 496 Punkte bzw. 431 Punkte. (Quelle: OECD (Hrsg.), „PISA 2018 Results. What School Life Means for Students’ Lives“ (2019), Table III.B1.2.7)

Bullying is a major risk factor for adolescents’ mental and physical health ...

„Bullying is a major risk factor for adolescents’ mental and physical health, in both the short and long term. Being bullied increases the risk of depression, anxiety, low self-esteem, loneliness and sadness amongst adolescents.“
OECD (Hrsg.), „PISA 2018 Results. What School Life Means for Students’ Lives“ (2019), S. 57

Children with an immigrant background who face language barriers are more likely to experience bullying ...

„Lack of language skills can have a negative impact on the lives and integration of immigrants. Children with an immigrant background who face language barriers are more likely to experience bullying, discrimination and emotional problems like depression and low self-esteem.“
OECD (Hrsg.), The Road to Integration (2019), S. 80.

Etwa 2000 Suizide pro Jahr gehen auf das Konto von Mobbing ...

„Jeder fünfte Mensch, der sich in Deutschland das Leben nimmt, geht diesen furchtbaren Schritt, weil er zuvor gemobbt worden ist. Etwa 2000 Suizide pro Jahr gehen auf das Konto von Mobbing.“

Mittelbayerische online am 12. Dezember 2018

 

Bullying begins at an early age ...

„Bullying begins at an early age, and achievement gaps between frequently and infrequently bullied students also emerge in the early years of education. Bullying policies also need to begin in the early years.“

IEA (Hrsg.), „How systemic is international bullying and what relationship does it have with mathematics achievement in 4th grade?“ (April 2018), S. 1

 

Ample evidence that bullying is a systemic problem at the international level ...

„16 % of students reported being bullied about weekly, providing ample evidence that bullying is a systemic problem at the international level and that bullying is occurring during the early years of schooling. […] 76 % of Korean students report never being bullied, while only 23 % of South African students report similarly.“

IEA (Hrsg.), „How systemic is international bullying and what relationship does it have with mathematics achievement in 4th grade?“ (April 2018), S. 2

 

Mobbing and mathematics achievement in TIMSS 2015 ...

„Internationally, with respect to mathematics achievement in TIMSS 2015, students who reported they were bullied about weekly achieved 36 points (or nearly one grade level) below those students that were almost never bullied.“

IEA (Hrsg.), „How systemic is international bullying and what relationship does it have with mathematics achievement in 4th grade?“ (April 2018), S. 4

 

Mobbing an Österreichs Schulen ...

„Über ein Drittel (35 %) der österreichischen SchülerInnen gibt an, an Mobbing von MitschülerInnen beteiligt gewesen zu sein. Fast ein Drittel (32 %) berichtet, Opfer von Mobbing geworden zu sein.“

BMBWF (Hrsg.), „Mobbing an Schulen“ (2018), Vorwort

 

Falsche oder beleidigende Inhalte über die eigene Person per Handy oder im Internet verbreitet ...

„Jeder fünfte Jugendliche gibt an, dass schon einmal (absichtlich oder versehentlich) falsche oder beleidigende Inhalte über die eigene Person per Handy oder im Internet verbreitet wurden. […] Konkret nach Bildmaterial, also Fotos oder Videos, gefragt, bestätigen elf Prozent der Jugendlichen, dass schon einmal peinliches oder beleidigendes Bildmaterial, auf dem sie zu sehen waren, verbreitet wurde.“
mpfs (Hrsg.), „JIM-Studie 2018“ (2018), S. 62

Acht Prozent „Einzelfälle“...

„Verlässt man die Ebene möglicherweise unbedachter oder versehentlicher Handlungen und fragt die Jugendlichen, ob im Bekanntenkreis schon einmal jemand per Smartphone oder online fertig gemacht wurde, bejahen dies 34 Prozent. […] Auf die Nachfrage, ob die Befragten selbst schon im Internet fertig gemacht wurden, geben dies wie im Vorjahr acht Prozent an.“
mpfs (Hrsg.), „JIM-Studie 2018“ (2018), S. 63

Extreme Internet users ...

„PISA defines children as 'extreme Internet users' when they spend more than 6 hours online per day outside school. In 2015, 16 % of 15 year olds among OECD countries could be considered 'extreme Internet users' during weekdays, and 26 % during weekends. 'Extreme Internet users' reported less life satisfaction and were more likely to be bullied at school. […] 'Extreme Internet users' performed worse across all subjects in the PISA test, even after accounting for differences in socio-economic backgrounds.“

Julie Hooft Graafland, „New technologies and 21st century children“ (2018), S. 12

 

Cyberbullying victimisation has a significant impact on an individual’s psychological and physical health ...

„Cyberbullying victimisation has a significant impact on an individual’s psychological and physical health, potentially decreasing life satisfaction and increasing depression and drug and alcohol use among the victim. Victims and bullies are more likely to feel sad, angry, or anxious, to skip school and to be less focused in class. Recent HBSC (Health Behaviour in School-aged Children) data from 43 countries showed that up to 12 % of 11-15 year olds reported being a victim of cyberbullying at least twice a month.“

Julie Hooft Graafland, „New technologies and 21st century children“ (2018), S. 24

 

Proportion of children being bullied online increased ...

„The 2010 EU Kids Online survey showed that 6 % of 9-16 year olds had been bullied online in the past 12 months, and two-thirds of this figure reported being upset about it. When in 2014 the survey was repeated across seven countries, the proportion of children being bullied online had increased to 12 %.“

Julie Hooft Graafland, „New technologies and 21st century children“ (2018), S. 24

 

Positive, trustworthy, good-quality relationships protect students ...

„Positive, trustworthy, good-quality relationships protect students from loneliness, low academic performance, and mental and physical health problems. By contrast, negative and poor-quality relationships and experiences at school, such as bullying, can result in students skipping classes, performing poorly and even dropping out of school entirely.“

Dr. Tarek Mostafa u. a., „Science teachers’ satisfaction: Evidence from the PISA 2015 teacher survey“ (2018), S. 51

 

Data from PISA show that bullying of students is widespread ...

„Data from PISA show that bullying of students is widespread. […] Bullying at school has long-lasting consequences for both the bully and the victim and should therefore never be considered a normal part of childhood, but a serious education and public health problem.“
OECD (Hrsg.), „Teaching for the Future“ (2018), S. 43f

Adolescents engaged in bullying as perpetrators, victims, or both ...

„Adolescents engaged in bullying as perpetrators, victims, or both, are more likely to skip classes, drop out of school, and perform worse academically than schoolmates who have no conflictual relationships with their peers.“
OECD (Hrsg.), „Teaching for the Future“ (2018), S. 44

Former school bullies were four times more likely than non-bullies to commit a relatively serious crime ...

„A Norwegian study found that former school bullies were four times more likely than non-bullies to commit a relatively serious crime later in life, while a similar UK study found that bullying at age 14 was a good predictor of later life outcomes, including selfreported violence in the teens, violent convictions before the age of 20, and drug use by the age of 30.“
OECD (Hrsg.), „Teaching for the Future“ (2018), S. 44

Adolescents who bully or are bullied are more likely to show symptoms of depression and anxiety ...

„Adolescents who bully or are bullied are more likely to show symptoms of depression and anxiety, have low self-esteem, feel lonely, change their eating patterns, and lose interest in activities.“
OECD (Hrsg.), „Teaching for the Future“ (2018), S. 45

Children with an immigrant background with language difficulties are found to be more likely to be bullied ...

„Children with an immigrant background with language difficulties are found to be more likely to be bullied, discriminated against and are more likely to suffer emotional problems, such as depression and low self-esteem. The sooner children become fluent in the host-country language, the more they can benefit from new opportunities. Thus, in many countries, schools emphasise language acquisition for children with an immigrant background.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „The Resilience of Students with an Immigrant Background“ (2018), S. 121

 

Angst vor Mobbing und schlechten Ergebnissen in Prüfungen führen zu enormem Stress unter Japans Schülern ...

„Angst vor Mobbing und schlechten Ergebnissen in Prüfungen führen zu enormem Stress unter Japans Schülern. […] Das Land hat die höchste Selbstmordrate der G7 Länder, jährlich nehmen sich ca. 20.000 Menschen das Leben. Während die Gesamtzahl zwar sinkt, steigt die Selbstmordrate bei jungen Erwachsenen, gerade wenn sie ihren ersten Job beginnen oder die Schule wieder los geht.“

sumikai.com am 3. September 2017

 

Schools where the incidence of bullying is high by international standards score 47 points lower in science

„Schools where the incidence of bullying is high by international standards (more than 10 % of students are frequently bullied) score 47 points lower in science, on average, than schools where bullying is less frequent (schools where less than 5 % of students are frequently bullied). This difference in performance between the two types of schools remains substantial (around 25 score points) even after accounting for differences in schools’ socio-economic profile.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „PISA In Focus 74“ (Juli 2017), S. 3

 

Being bullied is one of the most severe forms of stress that children can experience ...

„Being bullied is one of the most severe forms of stress that children can experience. Prolonged exposure to the stress hormone cortisol can alter parts of the brain architecture, such as the amygdala and the hippocampus, that are critical for regulating emotions. These negative effects are more problematic for young people because the body’s system for handling stress is particularly sensitive during this period of development.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „PISA In Focus 74“ (Juli 2017), S. 4

 

Bullying can lead to depression, anxiety and sleep disorders ...

„On average across OECD countries, about 42 % of students who are frequently bullied – but only 15 % of students who are not frequently bullied – reported feeling like an outsider at school. Bullying can lead to depression, anxiety and sleep disorders. About 26 % of frequently bullied students reported relatively low satisfaction with life (a value less than or equal to 4 on a scale from 0 to 10). Only around 10 % of students who are not frequently bullied reported such low satisfaction with their life.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „PISA In Focus 74“ (Juli 2017), S. 4

 

Victims of bullying often decide to stay out of school ...

„On average across OECD countries, about 9% of frequently bullied students (but only 4% of students who are not frequently bullied) reported that they had skipped school more than three or four times in the two weeks prior to the PISA test.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „PISA In Focus 74“ (Juli 2017), S. 4

 

Mobbing als zentraler Risikofaktor ...

„Mobbing ist einer der zentralen Risikofaktoren für das Auftreten nicht nur psychischer Erkrankungen, sondern auch von selbstverletzendem Verhalten und Suizidalität im Kindes- und Jugendalter.“

Dr. Michael Kaess, Jugendpsychiater, Süddeutsche Zeitung online am 17. Jänner 2017

 

Students attending schools where bullying is frequent score lower ...

„On average across OECD countries, students attending schools where bullying is frequent, by international standards, score 47 points lower in science than students in schools where bullying occurs less frequently.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „PISA In Focus 2017/71“ (April 2017), S. 2

 

Cybermobbing in Deutschlands Schulen ...

Deutschland: „In 31 % der Schulen tritt mindestens mehrmals im Monat eine Form von Cybermobbing auf, in weiteren 39 % der Schulen finden solche Vorkommnisse seltener als monatlich statt. Lediglich 24 % der befragten Lehrkräfte geben an, im Lauf des vergangenen Jahres keinen konkreten Fall von Cybermobbing bei ihren Schülern erlebt zu haben. 6 % konnten hierzu keine Aussage machen.“

Bündnis gegen Cybermobbing (Hrsg.), „Cyberlife II. Spannungsfeld zwischen Faszination und Gefahr. Cybermobbing bei Schülerinnen und Schülern“ (2017), S. 47

 

Beobachtete Folgen von Cybermobbing ...

„Am häufigsten beobachten Lehrer (74 %) bei den betroffenen Schülern niedergeschlagene bzw. bedrückte Stimmungen. Fast jeder Zweite bemerkte zudem Angstzustände (48 %) und ein Leistungsabfall in der Schule (47 %). Weitere häufiger beobachtete Symptome sind Konzentrationsprobleme (42 %), plötzliche Verschlossenheit (40 %) und häufiges Fehlen im Unterricht (32 %).“

Bündnis gegen Cybermobbing (Hrsg.), „Cyberlife II. Spannungsfeld zwischen Faszination und Gefahr. Cybermobbing bei Schülerinnen und Schülern“ (2017), S. 47

 

Adolescents who experience bullying as perpetrators and/or victims are more likely to have depressive and anxiety symptoms ...

„Adolescents who experience bullying as perpetrators and/or victims are more likely to have depressive and anxiety symptoms, low self-esteem, feel lonely, and lose interest in activities. Bullying also has negative influences on bystanders who report feelings of guilt or helplessness.“

Anne Choi, „Emotional well-being of children and adolescents“ (2017), S. 19

 

Cyberbullying is significantly related to multiple psychosocial and behavioural problems ...

„Cyberbullying is significantly related to multiple psychosocial and behavioural problems such as feeling angry, anxious, depressed, skipping schools and not being able to focus on school tasks that often deteriorate children's emotional well-being and educational outcomes. When it becomes extreme, cyberbullying victims can ideate or attempt suicides.“

Anne Choi, „Emotional well-being of children and adolescents“ (2017), S. 19

 

Bullying, cyberbullying, discrimination, exclusion and violence lower performance at school ...

Evidence shows that bullying, cyberbullying, discrimination, exclusion and violence lower performance at school.

EU-Kommission (Hrsg.), Education and Training Monitor 2017 (2017), S. 87

 

Both sexes are at about equal risk of being bullied ...

„Both sexes are at about equal risk of being bullied, but boys are more likely to be subjected to physical violence and threats, while girls seem more prone to be victims of psychological/relational forms of bullying, which can involve such actions as excluding others or spreading rumours.“

UNICEF (Hrsg.), „A Familiar Face. Violence in the lives of children and adolescents“ (2017), S. 39

 

Gefährliches Schweigen ...

„Many victims of school violence and bullying do not tell anyone about their experience. Reasons include lack of trust in adults, including teachers, fear of repercussions or reprisals, feelings of guilt, shame or confusion, concerns that they will not be taken seriously or not knowing where to seek help. […] School violence and bullying harms the physical health and emotional well-being of children and adolescents.“

UNESCO (Hrsg.), „School Violence and Bullying“ (2017), S. 9

 

Cyberbullying is a growing problem ...

„Cyberbullying is a growing problem. Most available data on the prevalence of cyberbullying is from surveys conducted in industrialised countries, and this suggests that the proportion of children and adolescents who are affected by cyberbullying ranges from 5 % to 21 % and that girls appear to be more likely to experience cyberbullying than boys.“

UNESCO (Hrsg.), „School Violence and Bullying“ (2017), S. 9

 

Those who are bullied are also more likely than those who are not bullied to experience interpersonal difficulties ...

„Those who are bullied are also more likely than those who are not bullied to experience interpersonal difficulties, to be depressed, lonely or anxious, to have low self-esteem and to have suicidal thoughts or to attempt suicide.“

UNESCO (Hrsg.), „School Violence and Bullying“ (2017), S. 9

 

Victims of cyberbullying in the USA ...

„In the USA, according to the 2013 Youth Risk Behaviour Survey, 15 % of children in grades 9-12 were bullied electronically through emails, chat rooms, instant messaging, websites or texting in the past year. Girls were more than twice as likely to report having been victims of cyberbullying than boys, at 21 % and 9 % respectively.“

UNESCO (Hrsg.), „School Violence and Bullying“ (2017), S. 23

 

Bullying leads victims to suicide or attempted suicide, anxiety, depression and self-harm ...

„In many cases, bullying leads victims to suicide or attempted suicide, anxiety, depression and self-harm. Being a perpetrator of bullying is associated with later violent behaviour and anti-social personality disorder.“

NESET (Hrsg.), „How to Prevent and Tackle Bullying and School Violence“ (2017), S. 6

 

The prevalence of bullying varies considerably across Europe ...

„The prevalence of bullying varies considerably across Europe. Lithuania, Belgium, Estonia, Austria and Latvia are some of the countries with relatively high victimisation rates between around 20 % and 30 %, compared to the lower rates of Denmark, Sweden, Czech Republic, Croatia, Italy and Spain below 10 %.“

NESET (Hrsg.), „How to Prevent and Tackle Bullying and School Violence“ (2017), S. 6

 

Victims are likely to experience low self-esteem, anxiety, depression, and suicidal ideation ...

„Victims are likely to experience low self-esteem, anxiety, depression, and suicidal ideation. Victimisation (i.e. being bullied) has also been linked to lower academic achievement and other behaviours such as disengagement, absenteeism and early school leaving.“

NESET (Hrsg.), „How to Prevent and Tackle Bullying and School Violence“ (2017), S. 18

 

Umfrage unter Deutschlands LehrerInnen ...

„Cybermobbing wird ein immer größeres Phänomen. 77 Prozent der Befragten sehen eine Zunahme von Formen des Mobbings über das Internet. Fast jede dritte befragte Lehrkraft gab an, dass es Fälle an der Schule gab.“

bildungsklick.de am 14. November 2016

 

All actors, including bystanders, and the school climate as a whole are affected ...

„Children who are bullied are likely to experience interpersonal difficulties, to be depressed, lonely or anxious, to have low self-esteem and to suffer academically, but all actors, including bystanders, and the school climate as a whole are affected detrimentally.“

UNO, General Assembly (Hrsg.), „Protecting children from bullying. Report of the Secretary-General“ vom 26. Juli 2016, S. 4

 

Between 2010 and 2014 cyberbullying increased from 8 to 12 per cent ...

„In Europe, where over 80 per cent of children between 5 and 14 years of age use mobile telephones, it is reported that between 2010 and 2014 cyberbullying increased from 8 to 12 per cent, especially among girls and children at younger ages.“

UNO, General Assembly (Hrsg.), „Protecting children from bullying. Report of the Secretary-General“ vom 26. Juli 2016, S. 6

 

PULSS-Ergebnis ...

„Für eine Facette des sozialen Selbstkonzepts – die soziale Anerkennung – berichteten Schülerinnen und Schüler der Begabtenklassen im Vergleich zu denjenigen der Regelklassen über eine bessere soziale Akzeptanz durch Mitschülerinnen und Mitschüler.“

Univ.-Prof. Dr. Wolfgang Schneider u. a., „Ergebnisse der Folgestudie PULSS II (Laufzeit 2014–2015)“ (2016), S. 29

 

Knapp ein Drittel der befragten Schülerinnen und Schüler waren in den letzten paar Monaten Opfer von Bullying ...

„Knapp ein Drittel der befragten Schülerinnen und Schüler waren in den letzten paar Monaten Opfer von Bullying. Burschen sind im Vergleich zu Mädchen vermehrt Opfer. Am stärksten ist die Altersgruppe der 13-Jährigen (Anm.: 37 % der Mädchen und 45 % der Burschen) betroffen, mit zunehmenden Alter geht der Anteil der Betroffenen zurück.“

BMFJ (Hrsg.), „Fokus Jugend“ (2016), S. 54

 

Adults who experienced violence and/or neglect in childhood ...

„Adults who experienced violence and/or neglect in childhood have lower levels of education, more limited opportunities for employment, lower earnings, and fewer assets.“

Gillian Huebner u. a., „Beyond Survival: The Case for Investing in Young Children Globally“ (2016), S. 16

 

Both safety and order are positively associated with student outcomes ...

„Safety and order in schools refer to the degree of physical and emotional security, along with an orderly disciplinary climate. Both safety and order are positively associated with student outcomes in a number of countries.“

Dr. Trude Nilsen u. a., „Teacher Quality, Instructional Quality and Student Outcomes“ (2016), S. 53f

 

The most negative association with science performance is (...) students bullying other students

„The most negative association with science performance, both before and after accounting for the socio-economic status of students and schools, is students lacking respect for their teachers, followed by student truancy, students skipping classes and students intimidating or bullying other students.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „PISA 2015 Results (Volume II): Policies and Practices for Successful Schools (2016), S. 93

 

Mobbying nirgends so häufig wie in Österreich und Estland...

„Mobbing kommt dem Bericht (Anm.: OECD-Studie „How’s Life“ (2015)) zufolge nirgends so oft vor wie in Österreich und Estland. Ganze 17,5 Prozent der österreichischen 11-, 13- und 15-Jährigen gaben an, in den vergangenen zwei Monaten mindestens zweimal von Schulkameraden körperlich oder verbal angegriffen worden zu sein.“

Die Presse online am 14. Oktober 2015

 

Von wiederholtem Bullying 14,1 % SchülerInnen betroffen ...

„Von wiederholtem Bullying, also mehrmals monatlich oder öfter, waren nach eigenen Angaben 14,1 % der (Anm.: 11- bis 17-jährigen) Schülerinnen und Schüler betroffen.“

Bundesministerium für Gesundheit (Hrsg.), „Gesundheit und Gesundheitsverhalten von österreichischen Schülerinnen und Schülern“ (2015), S. 53

 

The largest difference in prevalence of bullying victimization was measured in Sweden ...

„The largest difference in prevalence of bullying victimization was measured in Sweden 2011, where 8.6% of the native children were bullied, to be compared with the 27.8% of the immigrant children.“

Ylva Bjereld u. a., „Differences in prevalence of bullying victimization between native and immigrant children in the Nordic countries“. In: „Child: care, health and development“, 41, 4, 2015, S. 593

 

Children who are perceived as being different from their peers ...

„Children who are perceived as being different from their peers in their appearance or in other ways, such as overweight children, those diagnosed with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), or children with hearing or speech problems, are at a higher risk for being bullied.“

Ylva Bjereld u. a., „Differences in prevalence of bullying victimization between native and immigrant children in the Nordic countries“. In: „Child: care, health and development“, 41, 4, 2015, S. 594

 

Immediate harm and distress as well as longer term impacts ...

„Children and young people who are bullied often suffer immediate harm and distress as well as longer term impacts on their social, physical and mental health.“

Dr. Stacey Fox, „Better Systems, Better Chances“ (2015), S. 283

 

Cyberbullying poses a new challenge ...

„The insidious advent of cyberbullying poses a new challenge as bullying assumes a faceless yet ubiquitous presence. Recent research explicates that victims of cyberbullying and school bullying are at a significantly increased risk of mental distress (girls specifically), and suicidal ideation, plans and attempts, in comparison to teenagers who have not endured these threats. Moreover, cyberbullying has been suggested to have stronger associations with suicidal ideation for adolescents in comparison to traditional bullying.“

Aoibheann McLoughlin u. a., „Global trends in teenage suicide: 2003–2014“. In: „The Quarterly Journal of Medicine“, 2015, 108, S. 776

 

Victims of bullying likely to experience problems, such as depression ...

„Victims of bullying are likely to experience several problems, such as depression, anxiety and loneliness, which can persist into adulthood.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „How’s Life? 2015“ (2015), S. 171

 

The incidence of bullying among school children ...

„The incidence of bullying among school children is high in some OECD countries, such as Estonia, Austria and Belgium, where more than 15 % of teenagers report having experienced bullying twice or more over the past 2 months.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „How’s Life? 2015“ (2015), S. 173

 

Tenth grade students with low psychological health ...

„The percentages of tenth grade students with low psychological health were 6.5 % for those who had not been bullied, 12.1 % for those who had been bullied only in the past, 30.7 % for those bullied only currently, and 44.6% for those bullied both in the past and present (nearly 7 times the percentage of those who had not been bullied).“

Dr. Laura Bogart u. a., „Peer Victimization in Fifth Grade and Health in Tenth Grade“ in „PEDIATRICS“, Volume 133 (März 2014), S. 443

 

Students who are bullied are more likely to experience academic difficulties ...

„Students who are bullied are more likely to experience academic difficulties, including underachievement, lower attendance and dropping out, among others.“

UNICEF (Hrsg.), „Hidden in Plain Sight: A statistical analysis of violence against children“ (2014), S. 120

 

Children who are bullied are likely to experience a range of negative psychological outcomes ...

„Children who are bullied are likely to experience a range of negative psychological outcomes, including depression, anxiety, thoughts of suicide and low life satisfaction. […] The social, emotional and psychological effects of bullying can be severe and can persist throughout childhood into adulthood.“

UNICEF (Hrsg.), „Hidden in Plain Sight: A statistical analysis of violence against children“ (2014), S. 120

 

The psychological and behavioural consequences of bullying victimisation ...

„The psychological and behavioural consequences of bullying victimisation are detrimental. Aside from its immediate health and psychological impact, being a bully victim in school is a predictor of low self-esteem, anxiety, and depression during adulthood, and has a negative impact on subsequent socio-economic attainment.“

Dr. Stella Chatzitheochari, „Bullying experiences among disabled children and young people in England“ (2014), S. 4

 

Increased risk of being bullied among students with special educational needs ...

„A number of studies using different methodologies have reported an increased risk of being bullied among students with SEN (Anm.: students with special educational needs).“

Dr. Stella Chatzitheochari, „Bullying experiences among disabled children and young people in England“ (2014), S. 7

 

Being frequently bullied associated with an increased risk ...

„Being frequently bullied was associated with an increased risk of both depression and anxiety disorders at age 45, and also with suicidality. Children who were occasionally bullied were at increased risk of depression.“

Dr. Ryu Takizawa u. a., „Adult Health Outcomes of Childhood Bullying Victimization“ (2014), S. 3

 

17 % der Schülerinnen und Schüler waren nach eigenem Bekunden bereits Opfer von Cybermobbing-Attacken ...

„17 % der Schülerinnen und Schüler waren nach eigenem Bekunden bereits Opfer von Cybermobbing-Attacken. 19 % bekennen sich dazu, bereits Täter von Cybermobbing-Attacken gewesen zu sein.“

Bündnis gegen Cybermobbing (Hrsg.), „Cyberlife – Spannungsfeld zwischen Faszination und Gefahr“ (2013), S. 8

 

Umgangssprache zwischen den Jugendlichen härter und gewaltbereiter geworden ...

„Insgesamt sind über 80 % der befragten Pädagogen der Meinung, dass das Internet die Bereitschaft der Jugendlichen fördere, böse und gemein gegenüber anderen zu sein. Darüber hinaus sind fast drei Viertel der Ansicht, dass die Umgangssprache zwischen den Jugendlichen härter und gewaltbereiter geworden sei (72 %).“

Bündnis gegen Cybermobbing (Hrsg.), „Cyberlife – Spannungsfeld zwischen Faszination und Gefahr“ (2013), S. 69

 

Gründe für Schulabbruch (Erhebung unter SchulabbrecherInnen Schwedens) ...

„Harassment and bullying from peers or personnel in the school are clearly the most common causes, 46 percent cite that as a reason.“

EU-Kommission (Hrsg.), „10 reasons for dropping-out” (2013), S. 11

 

Erhebung unter SchulabbrecherInnen Schwedens ...

„For more than half of them, bullying is the foremost reason for dropping-out. For many, bullying started as early as their later compulsory school years. School personnel and other adults working closely with the young people have been criticized because they do nothing despite the fact that they are aware of what is going on.“

EU-Kommission (Hrsg.), „10 reasons for dropping-out” (2013), S. 6

 

Bullying and lower achievement in school ...

„TIMSS and PIRLS 2011 results showed that students who attended schools with disorderly environments and who reported more frequent bullying had much lower achievement than their counterparts in safe and orderly schools.“

IEA (Hrsg.), „TIMSS and PIRLS 2011: Relationships among reading, mathematics, and science achievement at the fourth grade“ (2013), S. 113

 

Bullying has been identified as an important risk factor ...

Bullying has been identified as an important risk factor for suicidal ideations and behaviours in adolescents and youth.“

Univ.-Prof. Dr. Dianne Byers u. a., „Teachers' attitudes towards overt and covert bullying, and perceived efficacy to intervene“ in „Australian Journal of Teacher Education“, 36(11), November 2011

 

Opfer und Täter ...

„Jeder vierte männliche Jugendliche war im letzten halben Jahr mindestens zweimal Opfer direkter Gewalthandlungen, jeder dritte war mindestens zweimal Täter.“

Univ.-Prof. Dr. Ferdinand Eder, „PISA 2009, Nationale Zusatzanalysen – Einzelzusammenfassungen“ (2011), S. 3

 

Österreichische Jugendliche weisen vielfältige und häufige Gewalterfahrungen auf ...

„Insgesamt zeigen die auf Selbsteinschätzungen beruhenden Ergebnisse, dass österreichische Jugendliche vielfältige und häufige Gewalterfahrungen aufweisen. Die Angaben für direkte Gewalterfahrungen fielen noch höher aus als in den beiden HBSC Studien der OECD.“

Mag. Dr. Dagmar Strohmeier, „PISA 2009, Nationale Zusatzanalysen – Einzelzusammenfassungen“ (2011), S. 26

 

Bullying and discrimination at school can have a profound effect ...

„Bullying and discrimination at school can have a profound effect on both academic achievement and potential absenteeism. Young people subject to bullying or discrimination are more likely to be depressed, lonely or anxious, and have low selfesteem.“

Anne-Marie Nevala, „Reducing Early School Leaving in the EU“ (2011), S. 98