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Hollands „extended schools“...

„In the Netherlands, extended schools include other services for children, such as childcare providers, health and welfare services, and sports and cultural institutions. These schools mostly serve disadvantaged students. The purpose of this cooperation is to promote children’s development by offering them help where necessary with problems at school or in their home setting, as well as by offering additional activities (e.g., culture, sport), with which they normally have little contact; and in some cases, additional instruction.

Dr. John Jerrim u. a., „Educational disadvantage: how does England compare?“ (2018), S. 36

 

Die AbsolventInnen des englischen Schulwesens gehören international zu den leistungsschwächsten ...

„In England in 2012 approaching one-third (29 %) of 16-24 year-olds had weak basic skills in the sense of numeracy and/or literacy below Level 2 in the PIAAC survey, one of the highest levels among OECD countries in the survey, and three times the level of a strong performer like the Netherlands (9 %) and substantially more than – say – Germany (19 %). While those from less advantaged family backgrounds are everywhere more likely to suffer from weak basic skills, this factor of inheritance is stronger in England than in most other countries.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „Apprenticeship in England, United Kingdom“ (2018), S. 92

 

Austria, France, Germany and the Netherlands share the experience of large-scale low-educated immigration ...

„Austria, France, Germany and the Netherlands share the experience of large-scale low-educated immigration, the so-called 'guest workers', in the post-World War II economic boom period. The native-born children of these immigrants generally had relatively lower starting conditions in terms of socio-economic characteristics compared to their peers with native-born parents. In contrast, immigration to Canada has been largely high-educated, although not all immigrant groups have the same background, and intergenerational mobility patterns vary across groups.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „Catching Up? Country Studies on Intergenerational Mobility and Children of Immigrants“ (2018), S. 9

 

Niederlande: The government launched policy arrangements for VVE (preschool and early school education, Voor- en vroegschoolse educatie) ...

Niederlande: „With the aim to reduce Dutch language deficits from 2000 onwards, the government launched policy arrangements for VVE (preschool and early school education, Voor- en vroegschoolse educatie). VVE policies especially target children of immigrants from disadvantaged families. The emphasis on second language learning at a young age has been embraced by all Dutch governments in power over the past two decades.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „Catching Up? Country Studies on Intergenerational Mobility and Children of Immigrants“ (2018), S. 101

 

Niederlande: Children of immigrants and children of disadvantaged families attend a separate provision called voorschool ...

Niederlande: „The general policy is that children of immigrants and children of disadvantaged families attend a separate provision called voorschool three half-days a week (between 10 and 12 hours in total). With few exceptions, in practice this means that in the cities, children of immigrants are placed together in preschool, separately from children of Dutch descent whose first language is Dutch. […] In the voorschool, the preschool especially designed for children from disadvantaged families, much attention is paid to second language learning using specialised methods.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „Catching Up? Country Studies on Intergenerational Mobility and Children of Immigrants“ (2018), S. 102

 

Niederlande: During grade 8 (Anm.: d. h. im 12. Lebensjahr), all pupils – and their parents – receive what is called 'school advice' ...

Niederlande: „During grade 8 (Anm.: d. h. im 12. Lebensjahr), all pupils – and their parents – receive what is called 'school advice', which is based on the national Cito test score and on the opinion of the teacher. In practice this is not just advice: it has important consequences for the type of school the pupil can be admitted to. The advice takes the form of an official document for the secondary school; it is given during a parent-teacher meeting to discuss the Cito test score and, more generally, the development and attitude of the pupil over the years.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „Catching Up? Country Studies on Intergenerational Mobility and Children of Immigrants“ (2018), S. 102

 

In the Netherlands, young children, especially those from disadvantaged backgrounds, are entitled to receive language-development support ...

„In the Netherlands, young children, especially those from disadvantaged backgrounds, are entitled to receive language-development support. These children can participate in early childhood and education targeted programmes that provide support before and during the first years of school. All toddlers (2.5 to 4 years old) who are part of this programme receive 10 hours of language development per week. For the rest of the day, targeted toddlers attend the same early childhood and education programme as their non-targeted peers.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „The Resilience of Students with an Immigrant Background“ (2018), S. 271

 

Abschlussquoten der Sekundarstufe II höchst unterschiedlich ...

„Der Unterschied bei den Erfolgsquoten zwischen Schülern ohne Migrationshintergrund und Schülern mit Migrationshintergrund der ersten Generation beträgt in Finnland, den Niederlanden, Norwegen und Schweden mehr als 10 Prozentpunkte – obwohl weniger als 5 Prozent der Anfängerkohorte in Finnland einen Migrationshintergrund der ersten Generation aufweisen.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „Bildung auf einen Blick 2017“ (2017), S. 192

 

Segregation durch freie Schulwahl ...

„In den Niederlanden etwa kann man sich komplett frei aussuchen, in welche Schule man seine Kinder schickt. Das ist ein Modell, das der Segregation extrem in die Hände gespielt hat.“

Univ.-Prof. Dr. Ruud Koopmans. In: ÖIF (Hrsg.), „Perspektiven Integration - Parallelgesellschaften“ (2017), S. 15

 

Den Haag: Children who do not yet speak Dutch are first given language classes ...

Den Haag: „Children who do not yet speak Dutch are first given language classes and gradually introduced to other subjects. After a maximum of two years, children move into the regular Dutch education system.“

Eurocities (Hrsg.), „Cities’ actions for the education of asylum seekers and refugees“ (2017), S. 10

 

Niederlandes vielfältiges Schulwesen ...

„The Dutch system is segmented, with several different types of schools at every stage after primary, and end-of-sector tests contribute to the decision about where students should be placed in the next stage. However, teachers’ judgements are considered along with performance on the tests in making these decisions. […] In each subject, the leaving exam includes school-based assessments as well as centrally designed standardized test.“

Univ.-Prof. Dr. Daniel Koretz, „The Testing Charade. Pretending to Make Schools Better” (2017), S. 213f

 

Foreign-born youth in the Netherlands are particularly at risk of becoming NEET ...

„Foreign-born youth in the Netherlands are particularly at risk of becoming NEET. Foreign-born youth (aged 15-24) are more than twice as likely as native-born youth to be NEET (OECD, 2016b). They are at serious risk of economic and social exclusion, with potentially harmful effects for all of society.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „OECD Skills Strategy Diagnostic Report Netherlands 2017“ (2017), S. 135

 

Beratung und Unterstützung statt harter Konsequenzen für Schulen mit schlechten Evaluationsergebnissen ...

„Während Schulen mit schlechten Evaluationsergebnissen in den USA und England harte Konsequenzen drohen, werden ihnen in den Niederlanden Beratung und Unterstützung angeboten.“

Univ.-Prof. Mag. Dr. Franz Rauch u. a., „Auswirkungen von Schulrankings auf Unterricht, Schulorganisation und Bildungssystem“ (November 2016), S. 8

 

Countries with low academic inclusion and high social inclusion ...

„Some countries and economies, such as the Netherlands, have low academic inclusion (performance varies considerably between schools) and high social inclusion (advantaged and disadvantaged students are relatively evenly distributed across schools), whereas others, like Spain, have high academic inclusion and low socio-economic inclusion.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „PISA 2015 Results (Volume II): Policies and Practices for Successful Schools (2016), S. 173

 

Low academic inclusion in the Netherlands ...

„The low academic inclusion in the Netherlands is not associated with greater socio-economic segregation of students across schools.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „PISA 2015 Results (Volume II): Policies and Practices for Successful Schools (2016), S. 173

 

Students selected into one of the education tracks in the Netherlands ...

Niederlande: „At the end of primary school, students are selected into one of the education tracks offering practical training, pre-vocational, general and pre-university secondary education.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „PISA 2015 Results (Volume II): Policies and Practices for Successful Schools (2016), S. 174

 

Students assigned to various tracks in the Netherlands ...

Niederlande: „Students are assigned to various tracks based on their performance on a national examination at the end of primary school and on their primary teachers’ recommendation.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „PISA 2015 Results (Volume II): Policies and Practices for Successful Schools (2016), S. 174

 

Literacy in the Netherlands ...

„Italy (85.4 %), Spain (82.6 %), Korea (79.4 %) and the Netherlands (71.8 %) have an exceptionally high proportion of adults who scored at or below Level 1 in literacy who came from families in which both parents had less than upper secondary level attainment.“

Univ.-Prof. Dr. Anke Grotlüschen u. a., „Adults with Low Proficiency in Literacy or Numeracy“ (2016), S. 34

 

Rates of year repetition in Dutch primary schools ...

„In Dutch primary schools the rates of year repetition are three times higher than the OECD average (7.7 %).“

OECD (Hrsg.), „Netherlands 2016 – Foundations for the Future“ (2016), S. 57

 

Repetition most common during the first two years of primary education in the Netherlands ...

Niederlande: „Repetition is most common during the first two years of primary education (at age four or five) and is heavily biased towards children from socio-economically disadvantaged and immigrant backgrounds. In some schools, nearly half of the student population repeats a grade.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „Netherlands 2016 – Foundations for the Future“ (2016), S. 57

 

Secondary schools in the Netherlands are free to select students ..

„Secondary schools in the Netherlands are free to select students and impose additional selection requirements that may go beyond the primary school’s advice.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „Netherlands 2016 – Foundations for the Future“ (2016), S. 68

 

The Netherlands differs from other early tracking countries ...

„The Netherlands differs from other early tracking countries as it has six or seven (depending on how they are counted) “early” tracks, rather than the more usual two or three.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „Netherlands 2016 – Foundations for the Future“ (2016), S. 25

 

The Dutch school system is highly stratified ...

„The Dutch school system is highly stratified with extensive early tracking. Early tracking is controversial, but student outcomes in the Netherlands are good on average and in terms of equity.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „Netherlands 2016 – Foundations for the Future“ (2016), S. 63

 

Tracking by ability takes place early ...

Niederlande: „Tracking by ability takes place early and is intensive, with more tracks than almost any other OECD country. Since the Dutch school system performs well both on equity and on average, it is harder to advance the argument for radical change to establish a comprehensive school system.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „Netherlands 2016 – Foundations for the Future“ (2016), S. 39

 

The Netherlands is in the 7th position among OECD countries ...

„The Netherlands is in the 7th position among OECD countries behind Switzerland, the United Kingdom, the United States, Luxembourg, Ireland and Canada in terms of attracting talent. Likewise, the country appears to be in a good position to retain talent. It ranks 6th among OECD countries, behind Switzerland, the United States, Norway, Finland and the United Kingdom.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „Recruiting Immigrant Workers – The Netherlands 2016“ (2016), S. 196

 

In Croatia, Hong Kong-China, Japan and the Netherlands, over 90 % of students attend selective schools ...

„In Croatia, Hong Kong-China, Japan and the Netherlands, over 90 % of students attend selective schools, i.e. schools where student academic performance and/or recommendations from feeder schools are always considered for admission.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „Equations and Inequalities“ (2016), S. 88

 

In Frankreich, den Niederlanden und Deutschland sprechen fast 50 % der fremdsprachigen Zuwanderer zu Hause die Sprache des Aufnahmelands ...

„In Frankreich, den Niederlanden und Deutschland sprechen fast 50 % der fremdsprachigen Zuwanderer zu Hause die Sprache des Aufnahmelands.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „Integration von Zuwanderern: Indikatoren 2015“ (2015), S. 66

 

Segregation in den Niederlanden ...

„Familien ohne Migrationshintergrund entscheiden sich häufiger bewusst für eine Schule mit niedrigem Zuwandereranteil und treiben so die Entmischung der ‚schwarzen Schulen‘ (zwarte scholen) weiter voran.“

Sachverständigenrat deutscher Stiftungen für Integration und Migration (Hrsg.), „Unter Einwanderungsländern: Deutschland im internationalen Vergleich“ (2015), S. 86

 

Bereits im Alter von vier Jahren besuchen 98 Prozent aller Kinder eine Grundschule in den Niederlanden ...

Niederlande: „Bereits im Alter von vier Jahren besuchen 98 Prozent aller Kinder eine Grundschule, in der sie schrittweise und meist spielerisch an Buchstaben, Zahlen und andere grundlegende Unterrichtsinhalte herangeführt werden.“

Sachverständigenrat deutscher Stiftungen für Integration und Migration (Hrsg.), „Unter Einwanderungsländern: Deutschland im internationalen Vergleich“ (2015), S. 85

 

Support through targeted early childhood education programs ...

„Children from a disadvantaged background aged 2½ to 4 are offered support through targeted early childhood education programs (voorschoolse educatie), which reach around 45 000 children.“

EU-Kommission (Hrsg.), „Early Childhood Education and Care Systems in Europe“ (2015), S. 31

 

Niederlande: Junior College offers enrichment programs in science & mathematics for talented and motivated 12- to 18- year old high school students ...

Niederlande: „Established in 2004, Junior College is a collaboration between Utrecht University and 27 secondary schools. It offers enrichment programs in science & mathematics for talented and motivated 12- to 18- year old high school students (grades 7-12) in an academic environment. High school students who successfully finish the program in grade 11 and 12 receive a certificate that allows them to enter honours courses in the first year of the science bachelor programs.”

Univ.-Prof. Dr. Marca Wolfensberger, „Talent Development in European Higher Education“ (2015), S. 47

 

Niederlande: A quarter of all secondary school pupils indicated that they are often or even always bored because their curriculum is too easy ...

Niederlande: „In a 2014 report, a quarter of all secondary school pupils indicated that they are often or even always bored because their curriculum is too easy. Among the pupils who count themselves among the top 20 % performers of their class, this percentage is 56 %.”

Univ.-Prof. Dr. Marca Wolfensberger, „Talent Development in European Higher Education“ (2015), S. 50

 

Niederlande: Three options at the end of primary school, around age 12 ...

Niederlande: „At the end of primary school, around age 12, pupils choose one of three options: pre-vocational secondary education (vmbo, 4 years), senior general secondary education (havo, 5 years) or pre university education (vwo, 6 years). Selection occurs with the advice of the teacher as main determinant, although a national test (CITO-toets) taken by most children also plays a large role.”

Univ.-Prof. Dr. Marca Wolfensberger, „Talent Development in European Higher Education“ (2015), S. 44f

 

Niederlande: Extensive plan to make provisions for talented pupils in primary and secondary education ...

Niederlande: „In March 2014 an extensive plan to make provisions for talented pupils in primary and secondary education was presented. The plan mentions over 20 measures, including the removal of legal barriers for pupils to follow certain subjects at higher levels and the possibility of businesses giving grants to talented pupils. The measures are aimed at all levels of education and top talents are defines as 'the 20 % of pupils that can perform best. At all levels.'“

Univ.-Prof. Dr. Marca Wolfensberger, „Talent Development in European Higher Education“ (2015), S. 53

 

Leistungsdifferenzierung ...

„Vermutlich ist das Tracking in den Niederlanden am stärksten von allen ausgewählten Ländern ausgeprägt, mehr als in Deutschland und Österreich und auch stärker als im Vereinigten Königreich als sonstiger Spitzenreiter.“

Dr. Lorenz Lassnigg u. a., „Das österreichische Modell der Formation von Kompetenzen im Vergleich“. In: Statistik Austria (Hrsg.), „Schlüsselkompetenzen von Erwachsenen – Vertiefende Analysen der PIAAC-Erhebung 2001/12“ (2014), S. 62

 

In certain European countries, including the Netherlands, ECEC (Anm.: Early Childhood Education and Care) is specifically targeted towards children at risk between the age of 2 and 5 ...

„In certain European countries, including the Netherlands, ECEC (Anm.: Early Childhood Education and Care) is specifically targeted towards children at risk between the age of 2 and 5, chiefly those from ethnic minorities or with poorly educated parents.“

Benoit Guerin, „Breaking the cycle of disadvantage“ (2014), S. 8

 

A range of initiatives to promote excellence ...

„The Dutch government has launched a range of initiatives to promote excellence in education. This includes a focus on providing better support to gifted and talented students and increasing the proportion of students achieving the highest levels on national and international assessments.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „Reviews of Evaluation and Assessment in Education: Netherlands“ (2014), S. 28

 

Countries where the largest proportion of students report that they had repeated a grade ...

„The largest proportion of students reporting that they had repeated a grade in primary, lower secondary or upper secondary school can be found in Belgium (36.1 %), closely followed by Spain, Luxembourg and Portugal (all exceeding 30 %). […] In France and the Netherlands, the rates of students who repeated a grade are close to 30 %.“

Eurydice (Hrsg.), „Tackling Early Leaving from Education and Training in Europe“ (2014), S. 44

 

Der Anteil Leistungsstarker im Lesen ...

„20 % der Volksschüler/innen in Österreich besitzen im Lesen bestenfalls Basiskompetenzen. In Finnland und den Niederlanden ist der Anteil halb so groß. Der Anteil Leistungsstarker im Lesen ist in Finnland, Großbritannien sowie den Vereinigten Staaten dreimal größer als in Österreich.“

BIFIE, „Nationaler Bildungsbericht - Österreich 2012; Indikatoren und Themen im Überblick“ (2013), S. 11

 

Führend beim Bildungsaufstieg ...

„The Netherlands and Austria are Europe’s champion ‚upstreamers‘.“

Univ.-Prof. Dr. Maurice Crul u. a., „super diversity“ (2013), S. 49

 

Niederlande: Different kinds of services for gifted students ...

Niederlande: „There are different kinds of services for gifted students, such as 'schools with gifted profiles' (found in primary and secondary education), schools with the so-called 'Leonardo profile' (school-within-a-school), enrichment classes, and pull-out classes. The impetus for all this is the potential economic benefits of gifted education. This is a worldwide trend and the Netherlands is no exception.“

Greet De Boer, MSc, u. a., „Gifted Education in the Netherlands“. In: „Journal for the Education of the Gifted“ (2013) 36(1), S. 134

 

Niederlande: Schools for students with special education needs ...

Niederlande: „In addition to regular education, there are also schools for students with special education needs due to learning and/or behavioral problems, both in primary as well as in secondary education.“

Greet De Boer, MSc, u. a., „Gifted Education in the Netherlands“. In: „Journal for the Education of the Gifted“ (2013) 36(1), S. 134

 

Private schools are allowed to select ...

Niederlande: „Private schools are allowed to select on the basis of religion or educational philosophy and some non-religious private schools ask significantly higher ‘voluntary’ fees.“

Univ.-Prof. Dr. Henry Levin u. a., Does educational privatisation promote social justice?“ in „Oxford Review of Education“, 2013, Vol. 39, No. 4, S. 523

 

Hollands differenziertes Schulwesen ...

„In secondary education, the highest performing Dutch students seem to catch up with their international peers to some extent, which could be due to ability tracking.“

Univ.-Prof. Dr. Henry Levin u. a., „Does educational privatisation promote social justice?“ in „Oxford Review of Education“, 2013, Vol. 39, No. 4, S. 524

 

The proportion of those repeating a year in primary education ...

„The proportion of those repeating a year in primary education is particularly high in six countries (Belgium, Spain, France, Luxembourg, the Netherlands and Portugal), ranging from 12.2 % in Spain to 22.4 % in the Netherlands and Portugal.“

Eurydice (Hrsg.), „Education and Training in Europe 2020“ (2013), S. 23

 

Niederlande: Unter-Zwölfjährige besuchen eine einjährige Vorbereitungsklasse, ältere Jugendliche einen Kurs ...

Niederlande: „Unter-Zwölfjährige besuchen eine einjährige Vorbereitungsklasse, ältere Jugendliche einen Kurs, dessen Dauer von ihrer Lerngeschwindigkeit abhängt.“

ÖIF (Hrsg.), „Zusammen: Österreich“ (Herbst 2012), S. 10

 

Anteil der Zuwandererkinder, deren Eltern in einem OECD-Hocheinkommensland geboren sind ...

„In Australien und der Schweiz sind die Eltern von drei von vier im Inland geborenen Zuwandererkindern in einem OECD-Hocheinkommensland geboren. Am geringsten ist der Anteil dieser Gruppe mit weniger als 10% in Österreich, Dänemark und den Niederlanden.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „Integration von Zuwanderern – OECD-Indikatoren 2012“ (2012)

 

Dropout bereits vor Ende der Sekundarstufe I ...

„Dropout in lower secondary school is most prominent in the Netherlands, Belgium and France.“

Univ.-Prof. Dr. Maurice Crul u. a., „The European Second Generation Compared“ (2012), S. 139

 

Niederlande: Various programmes to involve all parents and babies in reading activities ...

„In the Netherlands, there are various programmes that work with local libraries and the local agencies for parents and new-born babies (the ‘Consultatiebureaus’). The aim is to involve all parents and babies in reading activities, and get them into the libraries, where librarians support the parents in reading activities with the children.“

EU-Kommission (Hrsg.), „EU High Level Group of Experts on Literacy. Final Report“ (2012), S. 41

 

The Netherlands provide the best housing situation for children in the EU15 ...

„While indicators show that the Netherlands provide the best housing situation for children in the EU15, Austria is an outlier with both overcrowding rate and housing deprivation rate exceeding the EU15-average.“

MMag. Dr. Rainer Eppel u. a., „New Social Risks Affecting Children“ (2011), S. 44

 

Highest rates of school completion for nations that operate vocational education programs ...

„The group of nations that operate vocational education programs as separate qualifications or tracks, including Germany, Austria, Denmark and the Netherlands, tend to have the highest rates of school completion.“

Univ.-Prof. Dr. Stephen Lamb, „Pathways to School Completion: An International Comparison“. In: Lamb u.a., „School Dropout and Completion“ (2011), S. 56

 

In countries such as Greece, France, the Netherlands and Sweden, immigrant children are given the opportunity to attend temporary reception classes ...

„In countries such as Greece, France, the Netherlands and Sweden, immigrant children are given the opportunity to attend temporary reception classes if they do not have the required level of proficiency in the host language to cope successfully in the school system.“

Cedefop (Hrsg.), „Guiding at-risk youth through learning to work: Lessons from across Europe“ (2010), S. 56

 

Private Grundschule ...

„Approximately 70 percent of the Dutch elementary schools are denominational schools, with Protestant and Catholic schools as the largest groups and Jewish and Islamic schools as some of the smaller groups. […] Private schools, though fully funded by the state, may refuse students while public schools must accept all students.“

Dr. Eddie Denessen u. a., „School and Classroom Diversity Effects on Cognitive and Non-Cognitive Student Outcomes“. In: „Journal of Education Research“ (2010), Vol 4, Issue 2, S. 2f

 

Most of the native-Dutch parents choose a religious school for their children ...

„Most of the native-Dutch parents choose a religious school for their children, and thus self-segregate into either a Catholic or Protestant denomination.“

Univ.-Prof. Dr. Eddie Denessen u. a., „School and Classroom Diversity Effects on Cognitive and Non-Cognitive Student Outcomes“ in „Journal of Education Research“ (2010), Volume 4, Issue 2, S. 3

 

Demographic and housing segregation ...

„In the Netherlands, especially in the large cities, demographic and housing segregation leads to neighborhood schools with large proportions of students from lower socioeconomic and especially ethnic-cultural minority backgrounds.“

Univ.-Prof. Dr. Eddie Denessen u. a., „School and Classroom Diversity Effects on Cognitive and Non-Cognitive Student Outcomes“ in „Journal of Education Research“ (2010), Volume 4, Issue 2, S. 3