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Of the ten countries where reading performance declined over time, most witnessed the steepest declines among their weakest students ...

„Of the ten countries where reading performance declined over time, most witnessed the steepest declines among their weakest students. In particular, mean performance declined, and performance gaps widened, in Australia, Finland, Iceland, Korea, the Netherlands, the Slovak Republic and Sweden.“
OECD (Hrsg.), PISA in Focus 103 (Jänner 2020), S. 2.

Where performance remained stable over time among the highest-performing students, but performance declined among the lowest-performing students ...

„In Australia, Costa Rica, Finland, Iceland, Korea, the Netherlands, the Slovak Republic, Thailand and Sweden, performance remained stable over time among the highest-performing students, but performance declined among the lowest-performing students.“
OECD (Hrsg.), PISA in Focus 103 (Jänner 2020), S. 5.

Die unterschiedliche Wirkung des Elternhauses auf den Bildungsweg kann durch den Kindergarten nicht kompensiert werden ...

„PISA results show that across the OECD countries, students who had attended ECEC tend to have higher scores in academic proficiencies at the age of 15. However, these differences in academic proficiencies between those who attended ECEC versus those who did not attend are almost nil when students’ socio-economic status (SES) is considered.“
Jaime Balladares u. a., Attendance in Early Childhood Education and Care Program (2020), S. 4.

No perceivable decrease in the performance gap by ECEC programmes ...

„Findings from PISA 2015 indicate that the stratification of academic achievement by SES persist regardless of length of exposure to ECEC programmes. In other words, these results indicate that attendance in ECEC does not lead to reduce performance gap in later academic outcomes between advantaged and disadvantaged students. What is more, even the longest duration of ECEC attendance, i.e. students starting as early as ages one or two, does not achieve any perceivable decrease in the performance gap between the two groups of students.“
Jaime Balladares u. a., Attendance in Early Childhood Education and Care Program (2020), S. 19.

Fifteen year-old students whose parents have only attained a primary level of education perform worse on PISA assessments in reading ...

„Fifteen year-old students whose parents have only attained a primary level of education perform worse on PISA assessments in reading (OECD average of 417), as compared to their classmates whose parents have a secondary (463) or tertiary (489) education.“
OECD (Hrsg.) How’s Life? 2020 (2020), S. 125.
Österreichs Werte: 418, 481 und 497. (Quelle: ibidem, Figure 6.11.)

In 2018, Estonian students achieved the highest scores in science and reading from all participating countries ...

„In 2018, Estonian students achieved the highest scores in science and reading from all participating countries, and only students from Korea and Japan managed to score higher in mathematics.“
OECD (Hrsg.), Strengthening the Governance of Skills Systems (2020), S. 40.

Teaching is not among the top career aspirations of 15-year-olds ...

„A recent Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) study showed that teaching is not among the top career aspirations of 15-year-olds and that those who express a preference for teaching are usually not the top achievers.“
OECD (Hrsg.), TALIS 2018 Results. Volume II (2020), S. 83.

The most successful education systems were those where society values teachers the most ...

„The share of teachers who believe that teaching is a valued profession in their country is a good predictor of the attractiveness of the profession, as the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) results highlighted that the most successful education systems were those where society values teachers the most.“
Carine Viac u. a., Teachers’ well-being (2020), S. 11.

Fördermaßnahmen, die bei den Drei- bis Fünfjährigen ansetzen ...

„Die unzureichenden Lesekompetenzen vieler 15-Jähriger sind nur der Endpunkt eines früh gescheiterten Anfangs. Natürlich ist es auch bei den Sechsjährigen noch nicht zu spät für eine intensive sprachliche Förderung. Noch größere Wirkungen erzielen Fördermaßnahmen, die bei den Drei- bis Fünfjährigen ansetzen.“
Univ.-Prof. Dr. Andreas Gold, Frankfurter Rundschau online am 2. Dezember 2019.

Students’ sense of belonging at school ...

„Between 2003 and 2015, students’ sense of belonging at school seems to have weakened. On average across 30 OECD countries with comparable data, over those 12 years the proportion of students who reported feeling like an outsider at school increased by 10 percentage points, from 7% to 17%. Similarly, the proportion of students who reported feeling awkward and out of place in their school increased by 9 percentage points, and the proportion of students who reported feeling lonely increased by 7 percentage points.“
OECD (Hrsg.), „PISA in Focus 100“ (September 2019), S. 2

Lernmotivation ...

„In almost all participating education systems, 15-year-old students who report greater motivation to achieve also perform better in the PISA assessment. Students in socio-economically advantaged environments perform better and show greater motivation than students in disadvantaged environments.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „PISA in Focus 92“ (Jänner 2019), S. 1

 

PISA 2018: Der Anteil der Naturwissenschafts-Spitzengruppe in Österreich ist fast gleich groß wie im OECD-Schnitt ...

PISA 2018: „Der Anteil der Naturwissenschafts-Spitzengruppe in Österreich beläuft sich auf rund 6 % (5,8 % auf Stufe 5; 0,5 % auf Stufe 6) und ist damit fast gleich groß wie im OECD-Schnitt. […] Von Österreichs Nachbarländern verfügt Deutschland mit 10 % über die größte Spitzengruppe.“
BIFIE (Hrsg.), „PISA 2018. Grundkompetenzen am Ende der Pflichtschulzeit im internationalen Vergleich“ (2019), S. 61

Österreichs 15-Jährige: Ein kontinuierlicher Negativtrend zeigt sich bei der Aussage ‚Ich lese nur, wenn ich muss‘ ...

Österreichs 15-Jährige: „Während im Jahr 2000 etwa jede/jeder vierte Jugendliche Lesen für Zeitverschwendung hielt (28 %), war es 2009 und 2018 bereits jede/jeder Dritte (35 %). Ein kontinuierlicher Negativtrend zeigt sich bei der Aussage ‚Ich lese nur, wenn ich muss.‘. Während im Jahr 2000 41 % der österreichischen Jugendlichen dieser Aussage zugestimmt haben, waren es 2018 bereits über 50 %.“
BIFIE (Hrsg.), „PISA 2018. Grundkompetenzen am Ende der Pflichtschulzeit im internationalen Vergleich“ (2019), S. 66

In Österreich hat sich der Anteil an Schülerinnen und Schülern mit Migrationshintergrund seit der ersten PISA-Erhebung mehr als verdoppelt ...

„In Österreich stieg der Anteil an Schülerinnen und Schülern mit Migrationshintergrund seit der ersten PISA-Erhebung kontinuierlich an und hat sich von 11 % bei PISA 2000 auf 23 % bei PISA 2018 mehr als verdoppelt.“
BIFIE (Hrsg.), „PISA 2018. Grundkompetenzen am Ende der Pflichtschulzeit im internationalen Vergleich“ (2019), S. 75

Jugendliche, die zu Hause überwiegend die Testsprache sprechen ...

„Kroatien ist jenes Land, in dem die Schüler/innen mit Migrationshintergrund am häufigsten zu Hause überwiegend die Testsprache sprechen. Bemerkenswert ist, dass dies dort auf neun von zehn Schülerinnen und Schülern (92 %) zutrifft, gefolgt von Estland mit einem ähnlich hohen Gesamtanteil von 87 %. In Österreich spricht gut ein Viertel (26 %) der Jugendlichen mit Migrationshintergrund zu Hause überwiegend Deutsch.“
BIFIE (Hrsg.), „PISA 2018. Grundkompetenzen am Ende der Pflichtschulzeit im internationalen Vergleich“ (2019), S. 76

Lesekompetenz von Jugendlichen mit und ohne Migrationshintergrund ...

„In Bezug auf die Lesekompetenz von Jugendlichen mit und ohne Migrationshintergrund zeigt sich für Osterreich, dass sowohl die erste als auch die zweite Generation eine signifikant niedrigere Lesekompetenz aufweisen als die einheimischen Schüler/innen.“
BIFIE (Hrsg.), „PISA 2018. Grundkompetenzen am Ende der Pflichtschulzeit im internationalen Vergleich“ (2019), S. 77

Österreich zählt […] zu den Ländern mit den größten Leistungsnachteilen von Jugendlichen mit Migrationshintergrund ...

„Österreich zählt […] zu den Ländern mit den größten Leistungsnachteilen von Jugendlichen mit Migrationshintergrund – in Lesen macht der Mittelwertunterschied zwischen Einheimischen und Jugendlichen der zweiten Generation 54 Punkte aus, zwischen Einheimischen und Jugendlichender ersten Generation sogar 79 Punkte.“
BIFIE (Hrsg.), „PISA 2018. Grundkompetenzen am Ende der Pflichtschulzeit im internationalen Vergleich“ (2019), S. 77

Keine leistungsbezogenen Vorteile von Ganztagsschülerinnen und -schülern ...

„In vertiefenden Auswertungen querschnittlicher Daten der Schulleistungsstudien Internationale Grundschul-Lese-Untersuchung (IGLU), Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) und PISA konnten bisher keine leistungsbezogenen Vorteile von Ganztagsschülerinnen und -schülern gesichert werden.“
BMBWF (Hrsg.), „Nationaler Bildungsbericht Österreich 2018. Band 2“ (2019), S. 234

Rund 3 Stunden pro Tag online ...

„Die Schülerinnen und Schüler verbringen heute außerhalb der Schule an Wochentagen rd. 3 Stunden online, und an Wochenenden sind es 3,5 Stunden pro Tag.“
OECD (Hrsg.), „PISA 2018 Ergebnisse. Was Schülerinnen und Schüler wissen und können“ (2019), S. 37

Die zwischen den Ländern und Volkswirtschaften bestehende Varianz der PIRLS/IGLU-Ergebnisse kann rd. 72% der Varianz der Lesekompetenzergebnisse von PISA erklären ...

„Die zwischen den Ländern und Volkswirtschaften bestehende Varianz der PIRLS/IGLU-Ergebnisse kann rd. 72% der Varianz der Lesekompetenzergebnisse von PISA erklären.“
OECD (Hrsg.), „PISA 2018 Ergebnisse. Was Schülerinnen und Schüler wissen und können“ (2019), S. 77-79

PISA 2018: Die höchste in PISA beschriebene Kompetenzstufe in Mathematik ...

PISA 2018: „Etwa jeder sechste 15-Jährige in Peking, Shanghai, Jiangsu und Zhejiang (China) (16 %) und etwa jeder siebte Schüler in Singapur (14 %) erreichten in Mathematik Stufe 6 und damit die höchste in PISA beschriebene Kompetenzstufe. Diese Schülerinnen und Schüler besitzen die Fähigkeit zu anspruchsvollem mathematischem Denken und Argumentieren. Im OECD-Durchschnitt erfüllten nur 2,4 % der Schülerinnen und Schüler die Anforderungen dieser Stufe.“
OECD (Hrsg.), „PISA 2018 Ergebnisse. Was Schülerinnen und Schüler wissen und können“ (2019), S. 114
In Österreich waren es 2,5 %. (Quelle: OECD (Hrsg.), „PISA 2018 Ergebnisse. Was Schülerinnen und Schüler wissen und können“ (2019), Abbildung I.6.1.)

PISA 2018: Die größten Anteile an Schülerinnen und Schülern mit Leistungen auf Kompetenzstufe 5 oder darüber in Mathematik wurden in sechs asiatischen Ländern und Volkswirtschaften verzeichnet ...

PISA 2018: „Die größten Anteile an Schülerinnen und Schülern mit Leistungen auf Kompetenzstufe 5 oder darüber in Mathematik wurden in sechs asiatischen Ländern und Volkswirtschaften verzeichnet: Peking, Shanghai, Jiangsu und Zhejiang (China) (44 %), Singapur (37 %), Hongkong (China) (29 %), Macau (China) (28 %), Chinesisch Taipei (23 %) und Korea (21 %).“
OECD (Hrsg.), „PISA 2018 Ergebnisse. Was Schülerinnen und Schüler wissen und können“ (2019), S. 114
In Österreich waren es 13 %, im OECD-Durchschnitt 11 %. (Quelle: OECD (Hrsg.), „PISA 2018 Ergebnisse. Was Schülerinnen und Schüler wissen und können“ (2019), Abbildung I.6.1.)

Kompetenzstufe 5 oder 6 in Naturwissenschaften ...

„Im OECD-Durchschnitt erreichten 2018 6,8 % der Schülerinnen und Schüler in Naturwissenschaften Kompetenzstufe 5 oder 6 und waren damit der Kategorie der ‚besonders leistungsstarken Schüler‘ zuzuordnen. In Peking, Shanghai, Jiangsu und Zhejiang (China) war dies bei knapp einem Drittel der Schülerinnen und Schüler der Fall (32 %) und in Singapur bei mehr als einem Fünftel (21 %).“
OECD (Hrsg.), „PISA 2018 Ergebnisse. Was Schülerinnen und Schüler wissen und können“ (2019), S. 124
In Österreich waren es 12,6 % (Quelle: OECD (Hrsg.), „PISA 2018 Ergebnisse. Was Schülerinnen und Schüler wissen und können“ (2019), Abbildung I.7.1.)

PISA 2018: Niedrige Beteiligungsquote in Hongkong ...

PISA 2018: „Die niedrige Beteiligungsquote in Hongkong (China) (Anm.: 69 %; Österreich: 100 %) war vor allem auf zwei Gründe zurückzuführen: das mangelnde Engagement von Schulen und Lehrkräften für eine Teilnahme an PISA und die hohe Zahl an Schulen, die als nicht teilnehmende Schulen galten, weil weniger als 50 % der an diesen Schulen für die Stichprobe ausgewählten Schüler an dem Test teilnahmen.“
OECD (Hrsg.), „PISA 2018 Ergebnisse. Was Schülerinnen und Schüler wissen und können“ (2019), S. 195

PISA 2018: Niedrige Anstrengungsbereitschaft in Österreich ...

PISA 2018: „Schülerinnen und Schüler in Albanien, Peking, Shanghai, Jiangsu und Zhejiang (China) und Vietnam bewerteten ihre Anstrengungen durchschnittlich mit 9 Punkten und somit im Mittel aller teilnehmenden Länder und Volkswirtschaften am höchsten.“
OECD (Hrsg.), „PISA 2018 Ergebnisse. Was Schülerinnen und Schüler wissen und können“ (2019), S. 222
Im OECD-Durchschnitt bewerteten SchülerInnen ihre Anstrengungen mit 7,6, in Österreich mit 7,1; niedriger als in Österreich war die Anstrengungsbereitschaft unter allen 78 Staaten und Volkswirtschaften, die an PISA 2018 teilnahmen, nur im Libanon.

PISA 2018: Nur 17 % der Schülerinnen und Schüler in Albanien und 27 % der Schülerinnen und Schüler in Vietnam gaben an, dass sie sich mehr Mühe gegeben hätten, wenn der Test in ihre Note einfließen würde ...

PISA 2018: „Nur 17 % der Schülerinnen und Schüler in Albanien und 27 % der Schülerinnen und Schüler in Vietnam gaben an, dass sie sich mehr Mühe gegeben hätten, wenn der Test in ihre Note einfließen würde.“
OECD (Hrsg.), „PISA 2018 Ergebnisse. Was Schülerinnen und Schüler wissen und können“ (2019), S. 222

A robust correlation between the disciplinary climate and students’ performance ...

„There is indeed a robust correlation between the disciplinary climate measure derived from the PISA questionnaire and students’ performance as measured by the same survey. A robust positive relationship between disciplinary climate and students’ performance has been observed since the first wave of the PISA survey in 2000.“
Paul Cahu u. a., „Does School Safety and Classroom Disciplinary Climate Hinder Learning?“ (2019), S. 8

PISA 2012: Children subject to an intensive parenting style perform substantially better ...

PISA 2012: „Children subject to an intensive parenting style perform substantially better than those subject to nonintensive parenting within the same country. The difference is between 14 and 17 points across the three test scores.“
Univ.-Prof. Dr. Matthias Doepke u. a., „Love, Money and Parenting“ (2019), S. 75

PISA 2009: The effect of reading books with children ...

PISA 2009: „Reading books with children is associated with an increase in the score of 16 to 18 points across the math, reading, and science tests, while telling stories has an average effect ranging between 2 and 7 points.“
Univ.-Prof. Dr. Matthias Doepke u. a., „Love, Money and Parenting“ (2019), S. 75

In PISA 2015, Chinese students score among the lowest in the world in terms of self-reported life satisfaction ...

„In PISA 2015, Chinese students score among the lowest in the world in terms of self-reported life satisfaction. Stress and dissatisfaction can sometimes lead to tragic consequences. According to the 2014 edition of the Annual Report of China’s Education, a high share of teenagers who committed suicide were pushed to the brink by the heavy pressure of tests and exams.“
Univ.-Prof. Dr. Matthias Doepke u. a., „Love, Money and Parenting“ (2019), S. 286

Fifteen-year-old pupils from Shanghai spend on average 13.8 hours per week doing homework ...

„According to the OECD, fifteen-year-old pupils from Shanghai spend on average 13.8 hours per week doing homework, and many attend 'cram' schools on top of that. These schools offer afternoon sessions, which start after the end of regular classes and continue late into the evening.“
Univ.-Prof. Dr. Matthias Doepke u. a., „Love, Money and Parenting“ (2019), S. 288

A sense of belonging at school ...

„Immigrant students who are non-native speakers are five percentage points less likely than those who are native speakers to report a sense of belonging at school, on average across OECD countries.“
Mag. Dr. Neda Forghani-Arani u.a., „The lives of teachers in diverse classrooms“ (2019), S. 12
Im OECD-Mittel beträgt dieser Rückstand 4,8 Prozentpunkte, in Österreich ist er mit 3,6 Prozentpunkten erfreulicherweise etwas kleiner. (Quelle: OECD (Hrsg.), „The Resilience of Students with an Immigrant Background“ (2018), Fig. 5.8a)

Immigrant students who do not speak the language of assessment at home are less likely to be academically resilient ...

„On average across OECD countries, immigrant students who do not speak the language of assessment at home are around eight percentage points less likely to be academically resilient (defined as scoring at least Level 2 in PISA in reading, science and mathematics) than native-speaking immigrant students.“
Mag. Dr. Neda Forghani-Arani u.a., „The lives of teachers in diverse classrooms“ (2019), S. 12
Im OECD-Mittel beträgt dieser Rückstand 8,3 Prozentpunkte, in Österreich sogar 13,7 Prozentpunkte. (Quelle: OECD (Hrsg.), „The Resilience of Students with an Immigrant Background“ (2018), Fig. 5.5a)

Untersuchung zur online verbrachten Zeit ...

„On average, disadvantaged students spent 2.3 hours more online each week. […] Disadvantaged students in Austria and Spain spent 6.3 hours more.“
Dr. Adrien Lorenceau u. a., „Upgrading the ICT questionnaire items in PISA 2021“ (2019), S. 15
Anm.: Als „disadvantaged students“ werden in dieser Untersuchung diejenigen bezeichnet, die zum sozioökonomisch schwächsten Viertel der Gesellschaft gehören.

By 2015, 56 % of 15-year-old students in the United Kingdom were enrolled in a privately managed school ...

„In 2000, less than 10 % of 15-year-old students in the United Kingdom were enrolled in a privately managed school; by 2015, 56 % were.“
OECD (Hrsg.), „Balancing School Choice and Equity: An International Perspective Based on PISA“ (2019), S. 28

The trend towards more selectivity is observed between 2009 and 2015 in both lower and upper secondary schools in many countries ...

„The proportion of school admissions based on academic performance increased significantly in 34 of the 59 countries and economies that participated in PISA in both 2009 and 2015. […] The trend towards more selectivity is observed between 2009 and 2015 in both lower and upper secondary schools in many countries.“
OECD (Hrsg.), „Balancing School Choice and Equity: An International Perspective Based on PISA“ (2019), S. 39

About 9 % of 15-year olds in the OECD reported being subject to cyberbullying ...

„About 9 % of 15-year olds in the OECD reported being subject to cyberbullying although the share could be higher as victims are often reluctant to self-report. In 24 of the 28 countries for which data were available, young girls […] were more likely than boys to report having been cyberbullied, but they are also more likely to chat online daily or almost daily than boys.“
OECD (Hrsg.), Going Digital (2019), S. 111.

Too much use of digital technologies in the classroom can have negative impacts on learning outcomes ...

„According to evidence from the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA), while using digital resources in the classroom is beneficial for learning outcomes up to a point, too much use of digital technologies in the classroom can have negative impacts on learning outcomes.“
OECD (Hrsg.), How's Life in the Digital Age (2019), S. 43.

Extreme use of the Internet among children is associated with lower life satisfaction and school results ...

„A longitudinal study run on 3 000 children in Singapore found that extreme video game use and problems such as social phobia, attention deficit disorder, anxiety and depression often occur together and are likely to be mutually reinforcing. Results from the PISA study show that extreme use of the Internet among children is associated with lower life satisfaction and school results, even when controlling for socio-economic backgrounds.“
OECD (Hrsg.), How's Life in the Digital Age (2019), S. 60.

Extreme Internet use among young people is common in OECD countries ...

„Extreme Internet use among young people is common in OECD countries. On average, 24 % of 15-year-olds spend more than 6 hours a day on the Internet on weekend days, and a figure that is as high as 43 % in Chile and 37 % in the United Kingdom. Culture may play a role in the extent to which children spend long periods of time online, with the lowest share of extreme users among children in Japan and Korea. The level of educational achievement of parents also seem to be associated with extreme Internet use, with children of highly educated parents less likely to be extreme Internet users in most countries.“
OECD (Hrsg.), How's Life in the Digital Age (2019), S. 60f.

Südkorea: Secondary students spend more hours studying than in any other OECD country ...

Südkorea: „Secondary students spend more hours studying than in any other OECD country that participated in the 2015 PISA programme: 51 hours, compared to the 44 hour average.“
OECD (Hrsg.), Investing in Youth. Korea (2019), S. 14.

Korea has the lowest share of young people reporting high life satisfaction ...

„Data from the 2015 OECD Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) […] indicate that Korea has the lowest share of young people reporting high life satisfaction among OECD countries and the second-highest share of those reporting low satisfaction.“
OECD (Hrsg.), Investing in Youth. Korea (2019), S. 30.

The potential of small classes for creating a supportive learning environment is visible in PISA 2015 data ...

„The potential of small classes for creating a supportive learning environment is visible in PISA 2015 data: on average across OECD countries, and according to students’ reports, science teachers with smaller class sizes are more likely to adapt their lessons to the needs and knowledge of their students than science teachers in schools with larger class sizes. In addition, in almost every OECD country, students whose science teachers adapt more frequently their teaching outperform academically students whose teachers adapt their teaching less frequently, even after accounting for students’ and schools’ socio-economic profile.“
OECD (Hrsg.), Learning in rural schools (2019), S. 27.

Extreme Internet users scored less in all PISA subjects ...

„In OECD countries participating in PISA, extreme Internet users – students who use the Internet more than six hours a day – displayed lower life satisfaction, higher risk of disengagement from school and higher levels of perceived loneliness at school. Extreme Internet users also scored less in all PISA subjects, even after taking into account differences in socio-economic background.“
OECD (Hrsg.), „OECD Skills Outlook 2019“ (2019), S. 158

Extensive use of new technologies at school ...

„Students with very high levels of digital device use at school generally perform less well, whether in mathematics, reading or science. Extensive use of new technologies at school may replace other, more efficient educational practices or simply distract students.“
OECD (Hrsg.), „OECD Skills Outlook 2019“ (2019), S. 179

PISA 2018: Some 23 % of students reported being bullied ...

PISA 2018: „Some 23 % of students reported being bullied at least a few times a month, on average across OECD countries.“
OECD (Hrsg.), „PISA 2018 Results. What School Life Means for Students’ Lives“ (2019), S. 15
Österreich liegt mit 23 % im OECD-Durchschnitt. (Quelle: OECD (Hrsg.), „PISA 2018 Results. What School Life Means for Students’ Lives“ (2019), Table III.B1.2.1

PISA 2018: Skipping school prior to the PISA test ...

PISA 2018: „On average across OECD countries, 21 % of students had skipped a day of school and 48 % of students had arrived late for school in the two weeks prior to the PISA test.“
OECD (Hrsg.), „PISA 2018 Results. What School Life Means for Students’ Lives“ (2019), S. 15
Österreichs Werte sind mit 17 % bzw. 42 % etwas günstiger (Quelle: OECD (Hrsg.), „PISA 2018 Results. What School Life Means for Students’ Lives“ (2019), Table III.B1.4.1)

PISA 2018: 67 % of students reported being satisfied with their lives ...

PISA 2018: „On average across OECD countries, 67 % of students reported being satisfied with their lives (students who reported between 7 and 10 on the 10-point life-satisfaction scale). Between 2015 and 2018, the share of satisfied students shrank by 5 percentage points.“
OECD (Hrsg.), „PISA 2018 Results. What School Life Means for Students’ Lives“ (2019), S. 16
In Österreich bezeichneten sich 2018 70 % der 15-Jährigen als mit ihrem Leben zufrieden, im Jahr 2015 waren es noch 76 % gewesen.

PISA 2018: Students who expressed a greater fear of failure scored higher in reading ...

PISA 2018: „In a majority of school systems, students who expressed a greater fear of failure scored higher in reading, but reported less satisfaction with life, than students expressing less concern about failing, after accounting for the socio-economic profile of students and schools.“
OECD (Hrsg.), „PISA 2018 Results. What School Life Means for Students’ Lives“ (2019), S. 16

The most important criteria parents consider when choosing a school for their child ...

„Parents overwhelmingly cite school safety, a good reputation and a pleasant environment as the most important criteria they consider when choosing a school for their child – and for good reason. A safe, supportive and healthy school climate can make a great difference in students’ lives.“
OECD (Hrsg.), „PISA 2018 Results. What School Life Means for Students’ Lives“ (2019), S. 36

PISA 2018: Students who reported being bullied at least a few times a month ...

PISA 2018: „On average across OECD countries, students who reported being bullied at least a few times a month scored 21 points lower in reading than students who did not report so, after accounting for socio-economic status. […] Students who reported being frequently exposed to bullying also reported feeling sad, scared and less satisfied with their lives than students who did not report so.“
OECD (Hrsg.), „PISA 2018 Results. What School Life Means for Students’ Lives“ (2019), S. 46
In Österreich beträgt der Leistungsrückstand 22 Punkte. (Quelle: OECD (Hrsg.), „PISA 2018 Results. What School Life Means for Students’ Lives“ (2019), Table III.B1.2.6)

PISA 2018: 23 % of students reported being bullied at least a few times a month ...

PISA 2018: „On average across OECD countries, 23 % of students reported being bullied at least a few times a month; 8 % of students were classified as being frequently bullied.“
OECD (Hrsg.), „PISA 2018 Results. What School Life Means for Students’ Lives“ (2019), S. 47
Österreich liegt diesbezüglich mit 23 % bzw. 7 % im OECD-Mittelfeld. (Quelle: OECD (Hrsg.), „PISA 2018 Results. What School Life Means for Students’ Lives“ (2019), Figure III.2.1)

PISA 2018: 14 % of students reported that others made fun of them at least a few times a month ...

PISA 2018: „On average across OECD countries, 14 % of students reported that others made fun of them at least a few times a month; 10 % reported that they were the object of nasty rumours at school; and 9% reported that they were left out of things on purpose.“
OECD (Hrsg.), „PISA 2018 Results. What School Life Means for Students’ Lives“ (2019), S. 47
Österreich liegt diesbezüglich mit 14 %, 11 % bzw. 14 % über dem OECD-Durchschnitt. (Quelle: OECD (Hrsg.), „PISA 2018 Results. What School Life Means for Students’ Lives“ (2019), Figure III.2.1)

PISA 2018: 7 % of students reported that they got hit or pushed around by other students at least a few times a month ...

PISA 2018: „On average across OECD countries, around 7 % of students reported that they got hit or pushed around by other students at least a few times a month. Similar proportions of students reported that other students took away or destroyed things that belong to them and that they were threatened by others.“
OECD (Hrsg.), „PISA 2018 Results. What School Life Means for Students’ Lives“ (2019), S. 47
Österreich liegt diesbezüglich mit 7 % im OECD-Mittelfeld. (Quelle: OECD (Hrsg.), „PISA 2018 Results. What School Life Means for Students’ Lives“ (2019), Figure III.2.1)

PISA 2018: Anteil der Schulen, in denen Bullying das Lernen behindert ...

PISA 2018: „On average across OECD countries, 24 % of students attended schools whose principals reported that learning is 'not at all' hindered, 64 % of students were in schools whose principals reported that learning is hindered 'very little', and 12 % of students were in schools whose principals reported that learning is hindered to 'some extent' or 'a lot' by students intimidating or bullying other students.“
OECD (Hrsg.), „PISA 2018 Results. What School Life Means for Students’ Lives“ (2019), S. 49
Die entsprechenden Werte Österreichs lauten 23 %, 64 % und 13 %. (Quelle: OECD (Hrsg.), „PISA 2018 Results. What School Life Means for Students’ Lives“ (2019), Table III.B1.2.8)

Both aggressors and victims tend to skip classes and drop out of school more often ...

„Research finds that both aggressors and victims tend to skip classes and drop out of school more often, and perform worse academically, than peers not involved in bullying.“
OECD (Hrsg.), „PISA 2018 Results. What School Life Means for Students’ Lives“ (2019), S. 52

PISA 2018: Students who reported that other students threatened them at least a few times a month ...

PISA 2018: „On average across OECD countries, students who reported that other students threatened them at least a few times a month scored 56 points lower in reading than students who reported that they were threatened by other students a few times a year or less frequently, after accounting for students’ and schools’ socio-economic profile.“
OECD (Hrsg.), „PISA 2018 Results. What School Life Means for Students’ Lives“ (2019), S. 54
In Österreich beträgt der Leistungsrückstand 65 Punkte. (Quelle: OECD (Hrsg.), „PISA 2018 Results. What School Life Means for Students’ Lives“ (2019), Table III.B1.2.6)

PISA 2018: Objects of nasty rumours ...

PISA 2018: „In schools with the lowest percentage of students who reported that they were the object of nasty rumours (that is, schools in the bottom quarter of this indicator in their country/economy), the average reading score was 507 points. In schools with the highest percentage of these students (that is, schools in the top quarter of this indicator in their country/economy), the average reading score was 455 points.“
OECD (Hrsg.), „PISA 2018 Results. What School Life Means for Students’ Lives“ (2019), S. 54
Die entsprechenden Werte Österreichs lauten 496 Punkte bzw. 431 Punkte. (Quelle: OECD (Hrsg.), „PISA 2018 Results. What School Life Means for Students’ Lives“ (2019), Table III.B1.2.7)

Bullying is a major risk factor for adolescents’ mental and physical health ...

„Bullying is a major risk factor for adolescents’ mental and physical health, in both the short and long term. Being bullied increases the risk of depression, anxiety, low self-esteem, loneliness and sadness amongst adolescents.“
OECD (Hrsg.), „PISA 2018 Results. What School Life Means for Students’ Lives“ (2019), S. 57

Positive association between students’ perceptions of the classroom disciplinary climate and students’ academic performance ...

„Previous PISA results have consistently shown that there is a positive association between students’ perceptions of the classroom disciplinary climate and students’ academic performance, even after accounting for socio-economic status and other student and school characteristics. […] In all countries and economies, students with higher reading scores tended to report a more positive disciplinary climate, after accounting for socio-economic status. Even occasional disciplinary problems were negatively associated with reading performance.“
OECD (Hrsg.), „PISA 2018 Results. What School Life Means for Students’ Lives“ (2019), S. 66

The most common disciplinary problems ...

„On average across OECD countries, the most common disciplinary problems […] were that students do not listen to what the teacher says and that there is noise and disorder in the classroom.“
OECD (Hrsg.), „PISA 2018 Results. What School Life Means for Students’ Lives“ (2019), S. 66

PISA 2018: Disciplinary climate better in private schools than in public schools ...

PISA 2018: „On average across OECD countries, and in 18 other education systems, the disciplinary climate was better in private schools than in public schools, while the opposite was true only in Japan and Chinese Taipei.“
OECD (Hrsg.), „PISA 2018 Results. What School Life Means for Students’ Lives“ (2019), S. 67

PISA 2018: Students who reported a better disciplinary climate in their language-of-instruction lessons performed better in reading ...

PISA 2018: „In all countries and economies, students who reported a better disciplinary climate in their language-of-instruction lessons performed better in reading, after accounting for the socio-economic profile of students and schools (measured by the PISA index of economic, social and cultural status).“
OECD (Hrsg.), „PISA 2018 Results. What School Life Means for Students’ Lives“ (2019), S. 69

PISA 2018: Students who cannot work well in every or most language-of-instruction lessons scored 25 points lower in reading ...

PISA 2018: „On average across OECD countries, students who reported that students cannot work well in every or most language-of-instruction lessons scored 25 points lower in reading than students who reported that this never happened or happened only in some lessons, after accounting for socio-economic status.“
OECD (Hrsg.), „PISA 2018 Results. What School Life Means for Students’ Lives“ (2019), S. 69

PISA 2018: Adverse effects of truancy and lateness on learning ...

PISA 2018: „Chronic truancy and, to a lesser extent, lateness have such adverse effects on learning that school systems around the globe are constantly devising strategies to tackle them. […] The countries and economies where fewer students had skipped a whole day of school were also the countries/economies with higher average reading performance, such as Beijing, Shanghai, Jiangsu and Zhejiang (China), Estonia, Finland, Hong Kong (China), Japan, Korea, Macao (China), Singapore, Sweden and Chinese Taipei.“
OECD (Hrsg.), „PISA 2018 Results. What School Life Means for Students’ Lives“ (2019), S. 76

PISA 2018: On average across OECD countries, 21 % of students had skipped a day of school and 48 % of students had arrived late for school in the two weeks prior to the PISA test ...

PISA 2018: „On average across OECD countries, 21 % of students had skipped a day of school and 48 % of students had arrived late for school in the two weeks prior to the PISA test.“
OECD (Hrsg.), „PISA 2018 Results. What School Life Means for Students’ Lives“ (2019), S. 76
In Österreich waren es 17 % bzw. 42 %. (Quelle: OECD (Hrsg.), „PISA 2018 Results. What School Life Means for Students’ Lives“ (2019), Table III.B1.4.1)

PISA 2018: On average across OECD countries, students who had skipped a whole day of school in the two weeks prior to the PISA test scored 40 points lower ...

PISA 2018: „On average across OECD countries, students who had skipped a whole day of school in the two weeks prior to the PISA test scored 40 points lower than students who had not skipped school during the same period. […] On average across OECD countries, skipping some classes was associated with a decline of 37 score points in reading performance; arriving late for school was associated with a drop of 26 score points, after accounting for the socio-economic profile of students and schools.“
OECD (Hrsg.), „PISA 2018 Results. What School Life Means for Students’ Lives“ (2019), S. 80

PISA 2018: Students enrolled in schools with the lowest incidence of student truancy ...

PISA 2018: „Students enrolled in schools with the lowest incidence of student truancy (i.e. schools in the bottom quarter of the distribution) scored 514 points in reading, whereas students attending schools with the highest incidence (i.e. schools in the top quarter of the distribution) scored 453 points – a significant difference of 62 score points.“
OECD (Hrsg.), „PISA 2018 Results. What School Life Means for Students’ Lives“ (2019), S. 81

Students who skip school and arrive late for school, even if sporadically, score lower ...

„PISA has consistently found that students who skip school and arrive late for school, even if sporadically, score lower in the assessment compared to students who never skip school and always arrive on time. PISA 2018 results confirm this finding.“
OECD (Hrsg.), „PISA 2018 Results. What School Life Means for Students’ Lives“ (2019), S. 82

When students, teachers, parents and the school principal know and trust each other ...

„When students, teachers, parents and the school principal know and trust each other, work together, and share information, ideas and goals, students – particularly disadvantaged students – benefit.“
OECD (Hrsg.), „PISA 2018 Results. What School Life Means for Students’ Lives“ (2019), S. 120

PISA 2018: The countries where student co-operation was most prevalent ...

PISA 2018: „The countries where student co-operation was most prevalent, relative to competition, were Austria, Croatia, Denmark, Georgia, Germany, Japan and the Netherlands, whereas the countries where student competition was most prevalent, relative to co-operation, were Brazil, Brunei Darussalam, Ireland, Jordan, Korea, Malta, Morocco, New Zealand, Saudi Arabia, Singapore, the United Kingdom, and the United States.“
OECD (Hrsg.), „PISA 2018 Results. What School Life Means for Students’ Lives“ (2019), S. 122

Students who develop positive relationships with peers and teachers ...

„Students who develop positive relationships with peers and teachers, and a strong attachment to the school, are less likely to play truant and drop out of school.“
OECD (Hrsg.), „PISA 2018 Results. What School Life Means for Students’ Lives“ (2019), S. 136

PISA 2018: School safety, school climate and school reputation cited as the most important criteria when choosing a school ...

PISA 2018: „Parents overwhelmingly cited school safety, school climate and school reputation as the most important criteria when choosing a school for their child, followed closely by students’ academic achievement and the offering of specific subjects or courses.“
OECD (Hrsg.), „PISA 2018 Results. What School Life Means for Students’ Lives“ (2019), S. 142

PISA 2018: 92 % of students’ parents considered a safe school environment important ...

PISA 2018: „On average across the OECD countries and economies that distributed the parent questionnaire, 92 % of students’ parents considered a safe school environment important or very important; 89 % considered an active and pleasant school climate important or very important; and 81 % attached the same importance to the academic achievement of the students in the school.“
OECD (Hrsg.), „PISA 2018 Results. What School Life Means for Students’ Lives“ (2019), S. 148

PISA 2018: In every school system, parents ascribed more importance to school safety than they did to the academic achievement of the students in the school ...

PISA 2018: „In every school system, parents ascribed more importance to school safety than they did to the academic achievement of the students in the school. […] That many parents considered safety as their number one concern when choosing a school for their child may reflect parents’ growing anxiety about bullying and violence in and around schools.“
OECD (Hrsg.), „PISA 2018 Results. What School Life Means for Students’ Lives“ (2019), S. 148

PISA 2018: Between 2015 and 2018, the share of satisfied students shrank by 5 percentage points ...

PISA 2018: „On average across OECD countries, 67 % of students reported being satisfied with their lives (students who reported between 7 and 10 on the life-satisfaction scale). Between 2015 and 2018, the share of satisfied students shrank by 5 percentage points.“
OECD (Hrsg.), „PISA 2018 Results. What School Life Means for Students’ Lives“ (2019), S. 154
In Österreich waren es im Jahr 2018 70 %, im Jahr 2015 75 %. (Quelle: OECD (Hrsg.), „PISA 2018 Results. What School Life Means for Students’ Lives“ (2019), Table III.B1.11.1 u. Table III.B1.11.2)

PISA 18: Lower levels of life satisfaction in most East Asian countries and economies ...

PISA 2018: „In most East Asian countries and economies, such as Beijing, Shanghai, Jiangsu and Zhejiang (China), Hong Kong (China), Japan and Macao (China), students scored above the OECD average in reading, but reported lower levels of life satisfaction than the average 15-year-old student in OECD countries.“
OECD (Hrsg.), „PISA 2018 Results. What School Life Means for Students’ Lives“ (2019), S. 160

US teenagers who spend long hours browsing through social media and using their smartphones are significantly less happy than previous generations ...

„The World Happiness Report 2019 found that US teenagers who spend long hours browsing through social media and using their smartphones are significantly less happy than previous generations. In addition, those who spend more time on the Internet were more likely to develop depressive syndromes than those who spend more time with their families and socialising with their peers instead.“
OECD (Hrsg.), „PISA 2018 Results. What School Life Means for Students’ Lives“ (2019), S. 164

The time students spend on the Internet outside of school has steadily increased over the past few years ...

„PISA data show that, on average across OECD countries, the time students spend on the Internet outside of school has steadily increased over the past few years – from 18 hours per week, including weekend days, in 2012, to 23 hours in 2015 to 27 hours in 2018.“
OECD (Hrsg.), „PISA 2018 Results. What School Life Means for Students’ Lives“ (2019), S. 164

Students who reported being 'not satisfied' with life spent the most time on the Internet outside of school ...

„On average across OECD countries, students who reported being 'not satisfied' with life spent the most time on the Internet outside of school.“
OECD (Hrsg.), „PISA 2018 Results. What School Life Means for Students’ Lives“ (2019), S. 165
Für Österreich trifft dies in einem überdurchschnittlich hohen Ausmaß zu. (Quelle: OECD (Hrsg.), „PISA 2018 Results. What School Life Means for Students’ Lives“ (2019), Table III.B1.11.12)

PISA 2018: The more time students spent on the Internet outside of school, the more likely they were to report feeling sad or miserable ...

PISA 2018: „The more time students spent on the Internet outside of school, the more likely they were to report feeling sad or miserable.“
OECD (Hrsg.), „PISA 2018 Results. What School Life Means for Students’ Lives“ (2019), S. 176

PISA 2018: In Österreich haben 15-Jährige unter allen OECD-Staaten am viertwenigsten Angst vor dem Versagen ...

PISA 2018: „Students in many Asian countries and economies expressed the greatest fear of failure, while students in many European countries expressed the least fear.“
OECD (Hrsg.), „PISA 2018 Results. What School Life Means for Students’ Lives“ (2019), S. 190
In Österreich haben 15-Jährige unter allen OECD-Staaten (hinter den Niederlanden, Deutschland und der Schweiz) am viertwenigsten Angst vor dem Versagen. (Quelle: OECD (Hrsg.), „PISA 2018 Results. What School Life Means for Students’ Lives“ (2019), Table III.B1.13.2)

PISA 2018: In a majority of school systems, students who expressed a greater fear of failure scored higher in reading ...

PISA 2018: „In a majority of school systems, students who expressed a greater fear of failure scored higher in reading than students expressing less concern about failing, after accounting for the socio-economic profile of students and schools.“
OECD (Hrsg.), „PISA 2018 Results. What School Life Means for Students’ Lives“ (2019), S. 192

PISA 2018: The greater the fear of failure expressed by students, the higher the reading scores in that education system, on average ...

PISA 2018: „The greater the fear of failure expressed by students, the higher the reading scores in that education system, on average. […] A large number of English-speaking and East Asian education systems were amongst those whose students were both more likely to report a fear of failure and to be high performers in reading. […] Similar results were observed in relation to mathematics and science performance.“
OECD (Hrsg.), „PISA 2018 Results. What School Life Means for Students’ Lives“ (2019), S. 193f

PISA 2018: In 69 out of 71 school systems, students reported less satisfaction with life when they expressed a greater fear of failure ...

PISA 2018: „In 69 out of 71 school systems, students reported less satisfaction with life when they expressed a greater fear of failure, after accounting for students‘ and schools‘ socio-economic profile“
OECD (Hrsg.), „PISA 2018 Results. What School Life Means for Students’ Lives“ (2019), S. 195

PISA 2018: Students who disagreed or strongly disagreed with the statement 'Your intelligence is something about you that you can’t change very much' ...

PISA 2018: „On average across OECD countries, students who disagreed or strongly disagreed with the statement 'Your intelligence is something about you that you can’t change very much' scored 41 points higher in reading than students who agreed or strongly agreed with the statement.“
OECD (Hrsg.), „PISA 2018 Results. What School Life Means for Students’ Lives“ (2019), S. 203

The most reliable predictor of a child’s future success ...

„Long-standing research finds that the most reliable predictor of a child’s future success at school – and, in many cases, of access to well-paid and high-status occupations – is his or her family.“
OECD (Hrsg.), „PISA 2018 Results. Where All Students Can Succeed“ (2019), S. 50

PISA 2018: The association between socio-economic disadvantage and low performance ...

PISA 2018: „The association between socio-economic disadvantage and low performance was statistically significant in all PISA-participating countries and economies, except Macao (China).“
OECD (Hrsg.), „PISA 2018 Results. Where All Students Can Succeed“ (2019), S. 54

The number of books at home ...

„One of the home possessions that most clearly distinguishes students of different socio-economic status is the number of books at home. While 46 % of advantaged students reported having more than 200 books at home, on average, this is the case for only 6 % of their disadvantaged peers.“
OECD (Hrsg.), „PISA 2018 Results. Where All Students Can Succeed“ (2019), S. 55

More academically resilient students are found amongst those who reported better discipline in their schools ...

„More academically resilient students are found amongst those who reported better discipline in their schools.“
OECD (Hrsg.), „PISA 2018 Results. Where All Students Can Succeed“ (2019), S. 70

PISA 2018: In schools with smaller classes ...

PISA 2018: „In schools with smaller classes, students were more likely to report that their teachers adapt their lessons to students’ needs and knowledge, provide individual help to struggling students, and change the structure of the lesson if students find it difficult to follow.“
OECD (Hrsg.), „PISA 2018 Results. Where All Students Can Succeed“ (2019), S. 109

Each additional year of teaching experience is related to higher student achievement ...

„Each additional year of teaching experience is related to higher student achievement, especially during a teacher’s first five years in the profession. Results from TALIS 2018 show that, early in their careers, teachers often feel less confident in their ability to teach, in their classroom management skills and in their capacity to use a wide range of effective instruction approaches.“
OECD (Hrsg.), „PISA 2018 Results. Where All Students Can Succeed“ (2019), S. 109

Girls reported much higher levels of enjoyment of reading than boys ...

„In all PISA-participating countries and economies in 2018, girls reported much higher levels of enjoyment of reading than boys. […] On average across OECD countries, 24 % of 15-year-old boys and 44 % of girls the same age agreed that 'Reading is one of my favourite hobbies', while 60 % of boys but 39 % of girls agreed that 'I read only to get information that I need'.“
OECD (Hrsg.), „PISA 2018 Results. Where All Students Can Succeed“ (2019), S. 159

One of the most important factors related to achievement, both in school and in life, is the motivation to achieve ...

„One of the most important factors related to achievement, both in school and in life, is the motivation to achieve. In many cases, people with less talent, but greater motivation to reach their goals, are more likely to succeed than those who have talent but are not capable of setting goals for themselves and staying focused on achieving them.“
OECD (Hrsg.), PISA 2018 Results. Where All Students Can Succeed (2019), S. 162.

PISA 2018: The average difference in reading performance between immigrant and non-immigrant students ...

PISA 2018: „The average difference in reading performance between immigrant and non-immigrant students across OECD countries is 41 score points in favour of non-immigrant students. The difference shrinks to 24 score points after accounting for students’ and schools’ socio-economic profile.“
OECD (Hrsg.), „PISA 2018 Results. Where All Students Can Succeed“ (2019), S. 178
In Österreich beträgt der Rückstand vor Berücksichtigung des sozioökonomischen Backgrounds 63 Punkte, danach 33 Punkte. (Quelle: OECD (Hrsg.), „PISA 2018 Results. Where All Students Can Succeed“ (2019), Table II.B1.9.3)

Where segregation of immigrant students across schools is the most prevalent ...

„Across all countries with a relatively large proportion of immigrant students, segregation of immigrant students across schools is the most prevalent in Brunei Darussalam, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Kazakhstan, Lebanon, Malta, Panama, Portugal, Saudi Arabia and the United Kingdom.“
OECD (Hrsg.), „PISA 2018 Results. Where All Students Can Succeed“ (2019), S. 178

Immigrant students who do not speak the language of the PISA assessment at home ...

„On average across OECD countries in 2018, 48 % of 15-year-old first- and second-generation immigrant students did not speak the language of the PISA assessment at home.“
OECD (Hrsg.), „PISA 2018 Results. Where All Students Can Succeed“ (2019), S. 184
In Österreich waren es 74 %. (Quelle: OECD (Hrsg.), „PISA 2018 Results. Where All Students Can Succeed“ (2019), Table II.B1.9.2)

In most countries and economies, immigrant students scored worse in PISA 2018 than non-immigrants ...

„In most countries and economies, immigrant students scored worse in PISA 2018 than non-immigrants. The average score in reading amongst immigrant students across OECD countries was 452 points; non-immigrant students averaged 42 points higher.“
OECD (Hrsg.), „PISA 2018 Results. Where All Students Can Succeed“ (2019), S. 184
In Österreich erreichten 15-Jährige mit Migrationshintergrund nur 437 Punkte, 15-Jährige ohne Migrationshintergrund um 63 Punkte mehr. (Quelle: OECD (Hrsg.), „PISA 2018 Results. Where All Students Can Succeed“ (2019), Table II.B1.9.3)

Lesekompetenz 15-Jähriger mit Migrationshintergrund ...

„The largest differences in favour of second-generation immigrant students compared with first-generation immigrants were observed in Germany, Israel, Portugal, Slovenia and Sweden.“
OECD (Hrsg.), „PISA 2018 Results. Where All Students Can Succeed“ (2019), S. 184

PISA 2018: Immigrant students in Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Iceland, Lebanon and Sweden ...

PISA 2018: „Immigrant students in Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Iceland, Lebanon and Sweden were more than twice as likely as their non-immigrant peers to score below proficiency Level 2 in reading, even after accounting for students’ and schools’ socio-economic profile.“
OECD (Hrsg.), „PISA 2018 Results. Where All Students Can Succeed“ (2019), S. 186

PISA 2018: Strong association between the index of parents’ emotional support and the index of learning goals ...

PISA 2018: „A strong association was observed between the index of parents’ emotional support and the index of learning goals, both of which are based on students’ responses.“
OECD (Hrsg.), „PISA 2018 Results. Where All Students Can Succeed“ (2019), S. 203

Socio-economic disadvantage and language barriers are two of the greatest obstacles to the successful integration of students with an immigrant background ...

„Socio-economic disadvantage and language barriers are two of the greatest obstacles to the successful integration of students with an immigrant background. Immigrant students in OECD countries who do not speak the language of assessment at home are around eight percentage points less likely to be academically resilient than native-speaking immigrant students.“
OECD (Hrsg.), Ready to Help? (2019), S. 42.

Kanada: In literacy scores, native-born children of immigrants have the highest mean PISA reading scores among 15-year-old pupils OECD-wide ...

Kanada: „In literacy scores, native-born children of immigrants not only outperform their peers with native-born parents but have the highest mean PISA reading scores among 15-year-old pupils OECD-wide.“
OECD (Hrsg.), Recruiting Immigrant Workers: Canada 2019 (2019), S. 32.

Einkommen, Rahmenbedingungen und Wertschätzung ...

„The share of teachers reporting that the financial package and working conditions of the teaching profession were important motivations to them is higher in countries where teachers feel highly valued in society. These countries and economies also are among the top-performing systems in the OECD Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA).“
OECD (Hrsg.), „TALIS 2018 Results. Volume I“ (2019), S. 46

A mandatory teaching practicum was identified in PISA as a common feature of initial teacher preparation in all high-performing and equitable education systems ...

„A mandatory teaching practicum was identified in PISA as a common feature of initial teacher preparation in all high-performing and equitable education systems except Macao (China). […] A number of countries have recently reformed their initial teacher education systems to make the teaching practicum a mandatory element – such as Estonia.“
OECD (Hrsg.), „TALIS 2018 Results. Volume I“ (2019), S. 129f

PISA 2015: MigrantInnen der ersten Generation im Risikobereich ...

„According to PISA 2015 results, on average across OECD countries, as much as 51 % of first-generation immigrant students (foreign-born students of foreign-born parents) failed to reach baseline academic proficiency in reading, mathematics and science, compared to only 28 % of students without an immigrant background.“
OECD (Hrsg.), The Road to Integration (2019), S. 36.
In Österreich ist die Differenz noch weit größer: 61 % der MigrantInnen der ersten Generation landeten zumindest in einer der drei Kompetenzen im Risikobereich, unter den 15-Jährigen ohne Migrationshintergrund waren es 24 %.

PISA 2015: 15-year-old students in OECD countries with higher teacher salaries are more likely to expect entering a teaching career ...

„Data from the OECD Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2015 confirm that 15-year-old students in OECD countries with higher teacher salaries are more likely to expect entering a teaching career.“
OECD (Hrsg.), Working and Learning Together (2019), S. 22.

15-year-old students in countries with higher teacher salaries are more likely to expect going into a teaching career ...

„Comparatively low salaries are frequently regarded as one of the factors contributing to teacher shortages and a lack of qualified candidates. Across OECD countries, 15-year-old students in countries with higher teacher salaries are more likely to expect going into a teaching career and several countries in which teachers’ salaries were significantly lower than those of similarly educated workers have considered reducing this gap to attract more high-calibre candidates to the profession.“
OECD (Hrsg.), Working and Learning Together (2019), S. 135.

PISA 2015: 15-year-old students’ expectations to become teachers were more gender-balanced in countries with higher teachers’ salaries ...

„Data from PISA 2015, for example, show that 15-year-old students’ expectations to become teachers were more gender-balanced in countries with higher teachers’ salaries. […] As labour market opportunities for women expand, school systems may struggle to continue attracting the most talented women to the teaching profession at current salary levels.“
OECD (Hrsg.), Working and Learning Together (2019), S. 135f.

The main problems facing China’s educational sector ...

„Reflected by PISA data, the main problems facing China’s educational sector include the overburdening of students at school, emphasis on knowledge acquisition during the teaching process, and the prevalence of extracurricular tuition.“
Wenjie Yang u. a., „Post-PISA Education Reforms in China: Policy Response Beyond the Digital Governance of PISA“. In: „ECNU Review of Education“, 2019, Vol. 2(3), S. 297

Students in Shanghai spent more time on homework than their peers ...

„The PISA 2012 report indicates that students in Shanghai spent more time on homework than their peers, spending approximately 13.8 hr a week on homework compared to the OECD average of 4.9 hr.“
Wenjie Yang u. a., „Post-PISA Education Reforms in China: Policy Response Beyond the Digital Governance of PISA“. In: „ECNU Review of Education“, 2019, Vol. 2(3), S. 300

In many countries, a significant proportion of students attend extracurricular tuition classes ...

„In many countries, a significant proportion of students attend extracurricular tuition classes, especially in mathematics and language learning. Among OECD countries, 35 %, 48 %, and 41 % of students attend such classes in science, mathematics, and language learning, respectively.“
Wenjie Yang u. a., „Post-PISA Education Reforms in China: Policy Response Beyond the Digital Governance of PISA“. In: „ECNU Review of Education“, 2019, Vol. 2(3), S. 302

Extracurricular tuition ...

„In 2014, 48.9-58.1 % of elementary and 66.8-74.4 % of middle school students in Shanghai attended extracurricular tuition. […] In Beijing, 60.5 % of elementary students in Grades 5–8 and 58.4 % of middle school students engaged in extracurricular activity in 2015. Indeed, it is not uncommon for students to wake up at 7 a.m. and continue studying until past 10 p.m. in order to finish their homework.“
Wenjie Yang u. a., „Post-PISA Education Reforms in China: Policy Response Beyond the Digital Governance of PISA“. In: „ECNU Review of Education“, 2019, Vol. 2(3), S. 302

Shanghai: The total time spent on extracurricular learning per week ...

Shanghai: „The total time spent on extracurricular learning per week amounts to 17.1 hr. According to the PISA 2015 Survey, students spent an average of 3.2 hr on science, 3.8 hr on mathematics, 3.1 hr on language learning, 3.1 hr on foreign language, and nearly 4 hr on other subjects.“
Wenjie Yang u. a., „Post-PISA Education Reforms in China: Policy Response Beyond the Digital Governance of PISA“. In: „ECNU Review of Education“, 2019, Vol. 2(3), S. 302f

PISA’s theoretical hypothesis ...

„PISA’s theoretical hypothesis“: „This approach has caused numerous countries to comprehensively reform their education systems in the hope of improving their rankings. As a result, such countries have focused on economic growth and pursued the utilitarian value of education, thus ignoring the intrinsic values of education, which is to educate people.“
Wenjie Yang u. a., „Post-PISA Education Reforms in China: Policy Response Beyond the Digital Governance of PISA“. In: „ECNU Review of Education“, 2019, Vol. 2(3), S. 303

The role of a positive school climate in the success of enquiry-based science activities ...

„PISA 2015 asked students about the teaching practices they are exposed to at school. […] The findings emphasise the role of a positive school climate in the success of enquiry-based science activities. Enquiry-based science activities are associated with lower scores in science, especially among students who attend disorderly science classes; but this negative association is weakened when students attend disciplined science lessons. The lack of discipline in a classroom makes it more difficult for teachers to organise enquiry-based activities and, in turn, reduces the effectiveness of this practice.“
OECD (Hrsg.), „PISA in Focus 90“ (November 2018), S. 2

Teacher-directed practices are likely to deliver good results ...

„Greater exposure to teacher-directed science instruction is positively associated with science performance in almost all countries, even after accounting for student socio-demographic characteristics, and observed and unobserved school features, such as whether the school is public or private, and how it is funded. […] Teacher-directed practices are likely to deliver good results regardless of the classroom environment.“
OECD (Hrsg.), „PISA in Focus 90“ (November 2018), S. 4

OECD-weit durchschnittlich drei Jahre Leistungsrückstand 15-Jähriger aus sozioökonomisch schwachem Elternhaus ...

„In all countries and economies that participated in PISA 2015, socio-economic status has considerable influence on students’ performance in science, reading and mathematics. On average across OECD countries, the mean PISA science score among disadvantaged students was 452 points, while among advantaged students it was 540 points. This gap of 88 points is the equivalent of about three full years of schooling.“
OECD (Hrsg.), „PISA in Focus 89“ (Oktober 2018), S. 2
In Österreich beträgt die Differenz 97 Punkte. Am größten ist sie in Luxemburg (125 Punkte) und Frankreich (118 Punkte).

Finnlands und Mexikos SchülerInnen mit Migrationshintergrund bleiben am weitesten zurück ...

„As in many OECD countries, the children of immigrants do worse in school in Finland than children with native-born parents. In Finland, however, these differences are particularly striking. According to the OECD Programme for International Student Assessment, mathematics performance among native-born children with foreign-born parents lags that among those with native-born parents by equivalent to close to two years of schooling. Alongside Mexico, this is the largest gap of all surveyed countries.“
OECD (Hrsg.), Finland must focus on integrating migrant women and their children to boost their contribution to the economy and society, OECD online am 5. September 2018.

Schools with more experienced teachers tend to have better results in the PISA science test ...

„Schools with more experienced teachers tend to have better results in the PISA science test and a better school climate, as reported by students, even after accounting for student demographic characteristics.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „PISA in Focus 88“ (September 2018), S. 3

 

Schools with more advantaged students tend to perform better ...

„In all countries schools with more advantaged students (as indicated by higher average levels of the PISA index of economic, social and cultural status) tend to perform better than schools with more disadvantaged students.“
OECD (Hrsg.), „PISA in Focus 88“ (September 2018), S. 3

Compensation of disadvantaged schools with smaller classes ...

„A majority of countries and economies that participated in PISA 2015 compensate disadvantaged schools with smaller classes and/or lower student-teacher ratios.“
OECD (Hrsg.), „PISA in Focus 85“ (Juni 2018), S. 2

Countries that compensate for disadvantage in schools with smaller classes ...

„Countries that compensate for disadvantage in schools with smaller classes and lower student-teacher ratios do not, on average, have narrower performance gaps related to socio-economic status.“
OECD (Hrsg.), „PISA in Focus 85“ (Juni 2018), S. 4

Begabtenförderung, das Stiefkind österreichischer „Schulpolitik“ ...

„Die Gruppe der Spitzenschüler wird immer kleiner. Der Anteil jener Jugendlichen, die in mindestens einem der drei Testgebiete Naturwissenschaften, Mathematik und Lesen Spitzenleistungen erbracht haben, ist von 2005 bis 2015 um fünf Prozent gesunken. Bei der Lesestudie Pirls, an der heimische Viertklässler zuletzt vor zwei Jahren teilgenommen haben, lag der Anteil besonders guter Leser bei acht Prozent – und damit im EU-Vergleich im unteren Drittel.“

Der Standard online am 21. April 2018

 

Südkorea: Approximately half the 2012 PISA participants reported receiving private tutoring, often focused on test preparation ...

Südkorea: „Approximately half the 2012 PISA participants reported receiving private tutoring, often focused on test preparation. Overall, expenditures on private tutoring added 2.6 % of gross domestic product to the government’s contribution of 3.5 % toward education. One plausible interpretation of Korea’s and other East Asian jurisdictions’ ILSA (Anm.: International Large-Scale Education Assessments) results is that they are not a result of the public education systems but rather this substantial private investment.“

Dr. Judith D. Singer u. a., „Testing international education assessments“. In: „Science“ vom 6. April 2018; S. 39

 

In every school system, students who reported using the Internet more frequently scored lower in science ...

„Between 2012 and 2015, the time that 15-year-olds reported spending on the Internet increased from 21 to 29 hours per week, on average across OECD countries. […] In every school system, students who reported using the Internet more frequently scored lower in science than students who reported using the Internet less frequently. However, on average across OECD countries, 15-year-olds who used the Internet moderately scored above students who never used the Internet or who used it more intensively.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „PISA in Focus“, Nr. 83, April 2018, S. 2

 

Using the Internet intensively is also associated with less satisfaction with life ...

„Using the Internet intensively — more than 6 hours per day — is also associated with less satisfaction with life, arriving late for school and lower education expectations, according to the OECD report PISA 2015 Results: Students’ Well-Being. Maybe Korean and Japanese parents and students know best, and that is why 15-year-olds reported spending less time connected to the Internet compared to students in other countries, particularly on school days.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „PISA in Focus“, Nr. 83, April 2018, S. 5

36, 79

 

Evidence suggests that digitally connected students perform worse academically ...

„Students everywhere are spending more and more time connected to the Internet, both at and outside of school, and Internet use among disadvantaged students is increasing exponentially. While this may have been good news a decade ago, today it may be a mixed blessing: evidence suggests that digitally connected students perform worse academically, particularly when they use the Internet intensively on school days, and extreme Internet users report lower levels of well-being.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „PISA in Focus“, Nr. 83, April 2018, S. 6

 

In 2015, 23 % of 15-year-old students in OECD countries were either foreign-born or had at least one foreign-born parent ...

„In 2015, 23 % of 15-year-old students in OECD countries were either foreign-born or had at least one foreign-born parent, on average across OECD countries.“
OECD (Hrsg.), „PISA in Focus 82“ (März 2018), S. 2
In Österreich waren es 31 %.

Academic underperformance among immigrant students is particularly critical in Austria ...

„Academic underperformance among immigrant students is particularly critical in Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, Germany, Iceland, Luxembourg, Slovenia, Sweden and Switzerland.“
OECD (Hrsg.), „PISA in Focus 82“ (März 2018), S. 5

Störungsfreier Unterricht ist eine wichtige Grundlage für erfolgreiches Lernen ...

„Dass störungsfreier Unterricht eine wichtige Grundlage ist für erfolgreiches Lernen, gerade auch für Schüler mit ungünstigen Voraussetzungen, wissen wir seit Langem – unter anderem aus den Pisa-Erhebungen.“

Univ.-Prof. DDr. Eckhard Klieme, Die Zeit online am 7. Februar 2018

 

Zugehörigkeitsgefühl zur Schule ...

„93 % aller Schülerinnen und Schüler betrachten die eigene soziale Eingebundenheit als eher hoch oder hoch und nur 1 % gibt eine niedrige soziale Eingebundenheit an. Dieses hohe Zugehörigkeitsgefühl zur Schule belegen für Österreich auch im internationalen Vergleich die Ergebnisse der OECD-Studie PISA 2012.“

BIFIE (Hrsg.), „Standardüberprüfung 2017. Mathematik, 8. Schulstufe. Bundesergebnisbericht“ (2018), S. 32

 

Im Inland geborene Schüler schneiden beim PISA-Test um 82 Punkte besser ab als Migranten der ersten Generation ...

„Im Inland geborene Schüler schneiden beim PISA-Test um 82 Punkte besser ab als Migranten der ersten Generation (was einem Unterschied von beinahe drei Schuljahren entspricht). Die PISA-Studie zeigt zudem, dass Schüler, die zu Hause nicht die Unterrichtssprache sprechen, schwächere Leistungen in Naturwissenschaften erbringen.“

EU-Kommission (Hrsg.). „Länderbericht Österreich” (2018), S. 37

 

Schüler mit Migrationshintergrund, die zu Hause eine andere als die Testsprache sprechen, um mindestens 20 Punkte schlechter ...

„Die Ergebnisse von PISA 2015 deuten darauf hin, dass Schüler mit Migrationshintergrund, die zu Hause eine andere als die Testsprache sprechen, in den Naturwissenschaften um mindestens 20 Punkte schlechter abschneiden als Schüler mit Migrationshintergrund, die zu Hause die Testsprache sprechen.“
OECD (Hrsg.), „Bildung auf einen Blick 2018, OECD-Indikatoren“ (2018), S. 34

Frühkindliche Bildung bringt Kindern mit Migrationshintergrund höhere Ergebnisse in Naturwissenschaften ...

„Im Durchschnitt erzielten Kinder mit Migrationshintergrund, die angaben, dass sie mindestens ein Jahr lang an FBBE-Angeboten (Anm.: FBBE = frühkindliche Bildung, Betreuung und Erziehung) teilgenommen hatten, in der Internationalen Schulleistungsstudie PISA der OECD von 2015 ein um 36 Punkte höheres Ergebnis in Naturwissenschaften als solche, die angaben, dass sie weniger als ein Jahr an derartigen Angeboten teilgenommen hatten (dies entspricht rund einem Jahr formeller Schulbildung). Auch unter Berücksichtigung des sozioökonomischen Status der Kinder bleibt ein signifikanter Unterschied von 25 Punkten.“
OECD (Hrsg.), „Bildung auf einen Blick 2018, OECD-Indikatoren“ (2018), S. 212

Zwischen 2006 und 2015 ist der Anteil resilienter SchülerInnen in Österreich im Gegensatz zu Deutschland von 28 Prozent auf 23 Prozent zurückgegangen ...

„Die Analyse von PISA-Daten zeigt, dass es heute in Deutschland deutlich mehr Schülerinnen und Schüler gibt, die trotz eines eher bildungsfernen Elternhauses solide Kompetenzen in Lesen, Mathematik und Naturwissenschaften erwerben. Der Anteil dieser Schülerinnen und Schüler ist hierzulande im vergangenen Jahrzehnt so stark gewachsen wie in kaum einem anderen OECD-Land. Waren es im Jahr 2006 nur 25 Prozent, galten im Jahr 2015 schon 32,3 Prozent der sozioökonomisch benachteiligten Schülerinnen und Schüler als ‚resilient‘, was heißt, dass sie trotz ihres ungünstigen sozioökonomischen Hintergrunds im PISA-Test solide Leistungen zeigen.“
Vodafone Stiftung (Hrsg.), „Erfolgsfaktor Resilienz“ (2018), S. 3
In denselben neun Jahren ist der Anteil resilienter SchülerInnen in Österreich von 28 Prozent auf 23 Prozent zurückgegangen.

Positive classroom climate ...

„Several studies based on cross-country analysis of PISA data have highlighted the importance of a positive classroom climate for students’ academic achievement.“

Prof. Dr. Tommaso Agasisti u. a., „Academic resilience“ (2018), S. 19

 

Schools where class sizes are larger tend to have lower disciplinary climate ...

„Schools where class sizes are larger tend to have lower disciplinary climate, perhaps because larger classes are more difficult to manage.“
Prof. Dr. Tommaso Agasisti u. a., „Academic resilience“ (2018), S. 31

The likelihood that disadvantaged students will be resilient is higher in schools where students report a good disciplinary climate ...

„Across the vast majority of education systems examined, the likelihood that disadvantaged students will be resilient is higher in schools where students report a good disciplinary climate, compared to schools with more disruptive environments, even after accounting for differences in student and school socio-economic status and other factors associated with resilience. Attending orderly classes in which students can focus and teachers provide well-paced instruction is beneficial for all students, but particularly so for the most vulnerable students.“
Prof. Dr. Tommaso Agasisti u. a., „Academic resilience“ (2018), S. 34

Comparing OECD PISA 2006 and 2015 in science performance, equity indicators showed a significant deterioration ...

„Comparing OECD PISA 2006 and 2015 in science performance, equity indicators showed a significant deterioration. Of three main determinants of inequalities reviewed in a recent study — low educational level of parents, unemployment or receipt of social assistance — the latter has the greatest impact on the education outcomes of children. Foreign-born students not only leave education more often, they also tend to repeat grades.“
EU-Kommission (Hrsg.), Education and Training Monitor 2018 (2018), S. 95.

PISA 2015 data reveal: Time spent online increased ...

„PISA 2015 data revealed that, on average across OECD countries, students spent almost two and a half hours online outside of school on a typical weekday, and more than three hours on a typical weekend. Time spent online increased on average by about 40 minutes between 2012 and 2015, both on weekdays and weekends.“

Julie Hooft Graafland, „New technologies and 21st century children“ (2018), S. 9

 

Across OECD countries, 75 % of 15-year-old boys played one-player games regularly ...

„Across OECD countries, 75 % of 15-year-old boys played one-player games regularly, and more than 13 % played every day. 70 % of 15-year-old boys played collaborative online games regularly, and almost 20 % did so every day.“
Julie Hooft Graafland, „New technologies and 21st century children“ (2018), S. 11

Feeling bad when no Internet connection is available ...

„On average, 54 % of students who took the 2015 PISA assessment reported that they felt bad when no Internet connection was available. […] In European countries, socio-economically advantaged students were less likely to report that they felt bad without available Internet connection, compared to disadvantaged students.“

Julie Hooft Graafland, „New technologies and 21st century children“ (2018), S. 12

 

Extreme Internet users ...

„PISA defines children as 'extreme Internet users' when they spend more than 6 hours online per day outside school. In 2015, 16 % of 15 year olds among OECD countries could be considered 'extreme Internet users' during weekdays, and 26 % during weekends. 'Extreme Internet users' reported less life satisfaction and were more likely to be bullied at school. […] 'Extreme Internet users' performed worse across all subjects in the PISA test, even after accounting for differences in socio-economic backgrounds.“

Julie Hooft Graafland, „New technologies and 21st century children“ (2018), S. 12

 

Teacher shortages the greatest barrier to improving outcomes ...

„In the PISA 2015 survey, 45 per cent of head teachers in England reported that teacher shortages were the greatest barrier to improving outcomes, compared to around 30 per cent for the OECD. The situation in disadvantaged schools is more acute – since these schools generally face greater recruitment challenges and have higher levels of turnover than other schools.“

Dr. John Jerrim u. a., „Educational disadvantage: how does England compare?“ (2018), S. 8

 

Positive, trustworthy, good-quality relationships protect students ...

„Positive, trustworthy, good-quality relationships protect students from loneliness, low academic performance, and mental and physical health problems. By contrast, negative and poor-quality relationships and experiences at school, such as bullying, can result in students skipping classes, performing poorly and even dropping out of school entirely.“

Dr. Tarek Mostafa u. a., „Science teachers’ satisfaction: Evidence from the PISA 2015 teacher survey“ (2018), S. 51

 

Students in schools with teachers who are satisfied with their current job score 15 points higher in science, on average ...

„Results show that, across all participating countries and economies, students in schools with teachers who are satisfied with their current job score 15 points higher in science, on average, than students with less-satisfied teachers. This difference in performance persists (around five score points) even after accounting for students’ and schools’ socio-economic profile.“

Dr. Tarek Mostafa u. a., „Science teachers’ satisfaction: Evidence from the PISA 2015 teacher survey“ (2018), S. 53

 

Learning requires an orderly, supportive and positive environment both in and outside the classroom ...

„Research into what makes schools effective finds that learning requires an orderly, supportive and positive environment both in and outside the classroom. In effective schools, students engage in learning activities, rarely miss class and have few disciplinary problems. From the teacher’s perspective, this means an environment that is conducive to instruction and that facilitates classroom management.“
Dr. Tarek Mostafa u. a., „Science teachers’ satisfaction: Evidence from the PISA 2015 teacher survey“ (2018), S. 69

Österreich: 77 % of the children of natives move upward if their parents have only compulsory education, compared to only 51 % among the offspring of immigrants ...

Österreich: „Not only do those from Turkey and the former Yugoslavia achieve lower levels of education, but their children are also less likely than other groups to be upwardly mobile and achieve a higher level of education than their parents. 77 % of the children of natives move upward if their parents have only compulsory education, compared to only 51 % among the offspring of immigrants.“
OECD (Hrsg.), „Catching Up? Country Studies on Intergenerational Mobility and Children of Immigrants“ (2018), S. 12

Österreichs besondere Situation ...

„While the sons of immigrants (both Turkish and Yugoslav) are more likely to obtain a higher level of education compared to their parents than natives’ sons, the daughters of immigrants are less likely than the daughters of native-born parents to be upwardly mobile. 63 % of daughters of native-born parents compared to only 46 % of the daughters of immigrants obtain a higher level of education than their mothers.“
OECD (Hrsg.), „Catching Up? Country Studies on Intergenerational Mobility and Children of Immigrants“ (2018), S. 12

Österreich: People with an immigration background from the former Yugoslavia and in particular from Turkey have strikingly low levels of education ...

Österreich: „People with an immigration background from the former Yugoslavia and in particular from Turkey have strikingly low levels of education.“
OECD (Hrsg.), „Catching Up? Country Studies on Intergenerational Mobility and Children of Immigrants“ (2018), S. 18

Importance of early childhood education for proficiency in science ...

„The OECD’s Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) study suggests that 15-year-old students who attended early childhood education for less than one year are 3.1 times more likely than students who attended for one year or more to perform below the baseline level of proficiency in science (this decreases to 2.3 times after accounting for socioeconomic status).“

OECD (Hrsg.), „Engaging Young Children“ (2018), S. 14

 

Children whose parents engage in activities such as reading ...

„The Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) and many other studies show that children whose parents engage in activities such as reading, writing words, telling stories and singing songs not only tend to achieve better reading and numeracy skills, but are also more motivated to learn.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „Engaging Young Children“ (2018), S. 23

 

Die sozioökonomisch bedingte Leistungsschere ist schon am Ende der Volksschule weit geöffnet ...

„On average among 15 year-olds across the 12 OECD countries with comparable data, more than two-thirds of the gap in mathematics scores associated with having more books at home was already observed at age 10.“
OECD (Hrsg.), „Equity in Education“ (2018), S. 30
In Österreich waren es sogar schon über 77 Prozent.

Staaten, in denen die sozioökonomisch bedingte Leistungsschere zwischen 10 (TIMSS) und 15 (PISA) besonders stark aufgeht ...

„In Australia, Canada and Greece […], and also in the Czech Republic, Ireland, the Netherlands and the United States, inequity grows significantly during adolescence.“
OECD (Hrsg.), „Equity in Education“ (2018), S. 39

In Kanada geht die sozioökonomisch bedingte Leistungsschere, anders als in Österreich, in erster Linie während der Sekundarstufe I auf ...

„In Canada, the magnitude of the socio-economic gap in mathematics achievement at age 10 (as measured by the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study [TIMSS]) is about 43 % as large as the gap observed among 15 year-olds (as measured by PISA), and about 32 % as large as the gap in numeracy proficiency among 25-29 year-olds (as measured by the Survey of Adult Skills [PIAAC].“
OECD (Hrsg.), „Equity in Education: Breaking Down Barriers to Social Mobility. Country Note Canada“ (2018), S. 2
In Österreich geht die sozioökonomisch bedingte Leistungsschere in erster Linie im ersten Lebensjahrzehnt auf: mit 10 sind schon über 77 % der sozioökonomisch bedingten Leistungsdifferenz mit 15 und über 66 % der mit 25-29 gegeben.

Teachers in smaller classes are somewhat more likely to adapt their teaching to the students’ needs and abilities ...

„According to students’ reports across OECD countries, teachers in smaller classes are somewhat more likely to adapt their teaching to the students’ needs and abilities than teachers in schools with larger class sizes.“
OECD (Hrsg.), „Responsive School Systems“ (2018), S. 134

The benefit of preschool ...

„Comparisons of the PISA reading scores of 15-year-old students with immigrant parents and similar socio-economic backgrounds show that those who attended preschool consistently achieve higher scores. Across the EU, the benefit of preschool is 55 points among the native-born children of immigrants – roughly equivalent to 1.5 school years. The corresponding benefit among native-born children of natives is 23 points (half a year of schooling).“
OECD (Hrsg.), „Settling In 2018“ (2018), S. 186

The value of supportive parents cannot be overstated ...

„PISA data from 18 countries confirm that across wide cultural, socio-economic and individual differences, the value of supportive parents cannot be overstated. Students whose parents routinely engage in day-to-day home-based activities, such as eating a meal together or spending time 'just talking' not only have higher learning outcomes as measured by PISA, but are also more satisfied with their lives.“
OECD (Hrsg.), „Teaching for the Future“ (2018), S. 37

Data from PISA show that bullying of students is widespread ...

„Data from PISA show that bullying of students is widespread. […] Bullying at school has long-lasting consequences for both the bully and the victim and should therefore never be considered a normal part of childhood, but a serious education and public health problem.“
OECD (Hrsg.), „Teaching for the Future“ (2018), S. 43f

PISA reveals that speaking a language at home that is different from the language of assessment can explain much of the difference in academic performance ...

„PISA reveals that speaking a language at home that is different from the language of assessment can explain much of the difference in academic performance between native students and students with an immigrant background. First and foremost, it affects students’ proficiency in reading, which in turn also influences their competence in other domains.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „The Resilience of Students with an Immigrant Background“ (2018), S. 127

 

PISA shows that whether or not immigrant students speak the language of the assessment at home is strongly associated with their overall academic performance ...

„PISA shows that whether or not immigrant students speak the language of the assessment at home is strongly associated with their overall academic performance.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „The Resilience of Students with an Immigrant Background“ (2018), S. 129

 

A school’s disciplinary climate was a strong predictor of academic achievement and well-being in PISA 2015 ...

„Results suggest that a school’s disciplinary climate was a strong predictor of academic achievement and well-being in PISA 2015. […] The association between disciplinary climate and sense of belonging at school was also strong.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „The Resilience of Students with an Immigrant Background“ (2018), S. 205

 

Gains in science proficiency at age 15 from beginning ECEC at age 3 versus age 5 ...

„PISA results show that the gains in science proficiency at age 15 from beginning ECEC (Anm.: ECEC = Early Childhood Education and Care) at age 3 versus age 5 are greater for children of immigrants compared with children of non-immigrants.“
Dr. Elizabeth A. Shuey u. a., „The Power and Promise of Early Learning“ (2018), S. 57

Südkorea: A comparatively high share of 15-year-olds say they feel like they 'belong' at school ...

Südkorea: „A comparatively high share of 15-year-olds say they feel like they 'belong' at school (80 %, compared to an OECD average of 73 %), and a relatively low share report being the victim of bullying at least a few times a month (12 %, compared to an OECD average of 19 %).“
Dr. Olivier Thévenon u. a., „Tackling child poverty in Korea“ (2018), S. 35

Global Teacher Status Index 2018 bestätigt Global Teacher Status Index 2013 ...

„Our new data reaffirms the relationship between teacher pay and PISA pupil performance. This substantive result, which we have reported before in 2013, is now recognised as robust and of considerable policy relevance. It suggests that there is a clear relationship between the relative quality of teachers a system recruits when the wages on offer to them is higher.“
Varkey Foundation (Hrsg.), „Global Teacher Status Index 2018“ (2018), S. 14

Higher teacher pay is positively associated with higher average PISA scores ...

„There is good evidence that higher teacher pay is positively associated with higher average PISA scores.“
Varkey Foundation (Hrsg.), „Global Teacher Status Index 2018“ (2018), S. 120

An increase in teacher status in a country is a clear driver (along with higher pay) of increased pupil performance ...

„An increase in teacher status in a country is a clear driver (along with higher pay) of increased pupil performance (as measured by pupil performance of 15 year olds on PISA tests.)“
Varkey Foundation (Hrsg.), „Global Teacher Status Index 2018“ (2018), S. 122

PISA results suggest that the countries with low early reading ability also have low functional literacy ...

„PISA results suggest that the countries with low early reading ability also have low functional literacy (conceptualized as the inability to comprehend the main message in grade-appropriate texts in late primary school). If students do not learn to read fluently in the early grades, there is little hope that they will develop the skills to succeed on tests like PISA or, more important, in a professional workplace.“

World Bank Group (Hrsg.), „Growing Smarter“ (2018), S. 21

 

The only type of resource that is correlated with student performance is teacher salaries ...

„Analysis of PISA results suggests that the only type of resource that is correlated with student performance is teacher salaries relative to national income. There is a statistically significant positive relationship between teacher salaries relative to GDP per capita and PISA 2012 math scores in economies with GDP per capita of more than US$20,000.“

World Bank Group (Hrsg.), „Growing Smarter“ (2018), S. 113

 

In France, the difference in science performance on the 2015 PISA between the richest and the poorest students was 115 points ...

„In France, the difference in science performance on the 2015 PISA between the richest and the poorest students was 115 points. […] A 100-point difference in PISA scores is roughly equivalent to three years of schooling.“

The World Bank (Hrsg.), „Learning to Realize Education's Promise“ (2018), S. 78

 

A country’s performance in PISA is unrelated to the use of standardised testing ...

„A country’s performance in PISA is […] unrelated to the use of standardised testing. Among countries and economies that perform near the top in science, the use of mandatory standardised tests is widespread in Beijing-Shanghai-Jiangsu-Guangdong (China), Singapore and the United Kingdom, but relatively uncommon in Germany, Korea and Switzerland.“
OECD (Hrsg.), „PISA in Focus 79“ (Dezember 2017), S. 4

Students tend to perform better in schools that provide an environment that is conducive to learning ...

„Students tend to perform better in schools that provide an environment that is conducive to learning. Most of all, this means that students listen to the teacher, treat other students with respect, and do not disrupt the flow of instruction (disciplinary climate).“

OECD (Hrsg.), „PISA in Focus 76“ (September 2017), S. 2

 

Singapurs Weg zum PISA-Sieg ...

„Während im Schnitt der OECD-Länder 66 Prozent der Schüler angaben, Angst vor schlechten Noten zu haben, fürchten sich in Singapur 86 Prozent der Befragten davor. 76 Prozent der Singapurer berichteten, dass sie – selbst wenn sie gut vorbereitet sind – Angst vor Tests und Prüfungen haben. Im OECD-Schnitt sagten das nur 55 Prozent der Kinder.“
Luzerner Zeitung online am 26. August 2017

Schools where the incidence of bullying is high by international standards score 47 points lower in science, on average, than schools where bullying is less frequent ...

„Schools where the incidence of bullying is high by international standards (more than 10 % of students are frequently bullied) score 47 points lower in science, on average, than schools where bullying is less frequent (schools where less than 5 % of students are frequently bullied). This difference in performance between the two types of schools remains substantial (around 25 score points) even after accounting for differences in schools’ socio-economic profile.“
OECD (Hrsg.), „PISA in Focus 74“ (Juli 2017), S. 3

Bullying can lead to depression, anxiety and sleep disorders ...

„On average across OECD countries, about 42 % of students who are frequently bullied – but only 15 % of students who are not frequently bullied – reported feeling like an outsider at school. Bullying can lead to depression, anxiety and sleep disorders. About 26 % of frequently bullied students reported relatively low satisfaction with life (a value less than or equal to 4 on a scale from 0 to 10). Only around 10 % of students who are not frequently bullied reported such low satisfaction with their life.“
OECD (Hrsg.), „PISA in Focus 74“ (Juli 2017), S. 4

Victims of bullying often decide to stay out of school ...

„On average across OECD countries, about 9% of frequently bullied students (but only 4% of students who are not frequently bullied) reported that they had skipped school more than three or four times in the two weeks prior to the PISA test.“
OECD (Hrsg.), „PISA in Focus 74“ (Juli 2017), S. 4

Students attending schools where bullying is frequent ...

„On average across OECD countries, students attending schools where bullying is frequent, by international standards, score 47 points lower in science than students in schools where bullying occurs less frequently.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „PISA In Focus 71“ (April 2017), S. 2

 

15-year-old students whose parents routinely engage in home-based activities with them ...

„PISA data show that 15-year-old students whose parents routinely engage in home-based activities with them, such as eating a meal together or spending time “just talking”, not only score higher, but they are also more satisfied with their life.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „PISA In Focus 71“ (April 2017), S. 5

 

Students who regard their parents as being interested in their school life ...

„Students who regard their parents as being interested in their school life perform better, reported higher achievement motivation, and are more likely to be highly satisfied with their life than students who reported a lack of parental interest.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „PISA In Focus 71“ (April 2017), S. 5

 

Vernichtende Einschätzung der messbaren Effekte von Ganztagsschulen ...

„In einer Analyse messbarer Effekte von Ganztagsschulen auf Basis der IGLU (Internationale Grundschul-Lese-Untersuchung), TIMSS und PISA-Befunde kommen Strietholt et al. zur vernichtenden Einschätzung, dass ‚die gegenwärtige organisatorische, pädagogische oder personelle Ausgestaltung ganztägiger Bildung und Betreuung in der aktuellen Form nicht zu den erhofften Effekten hinsichtlich der Verbesserung von fachlichen Schülerkompetenzen führt‘ und auch ‚… eine Reduktion von Bildungsungleichheit nicht zu beobachten ist.‘“
Univ.-Prof. Dr. Klaus Birkelbach u. a., „Außerschulische Nachhilfe“ (2017), S. 40

Rekrutierung billiger Arbeitskräfte und deren Auswirkung auf schulische Leistungen ...

„Schon bei PISA 2006 lag aufgrund dieser Einwanderungspolitik der Migrantennachwuchs in Deutschland und Österreich tiefer unter den Leistungen der Alteingesessenen als in den übrigen untersuchten 56 Ländern. Kanada dagegen wurde beim selben Test zum ersten Land, in dem Migrantenkinder die einheimischen schulisch übertrafen.“
Univ.-Prof. Dr. Gunnar Heinsohn. In: ÖIF (Hrsg.), „Perspektiven Integration - Parallelgesellschaften“ (2017), S. 35

Teilnahme an Angeboten des Elementarbereichs ...

PISA: „Schüler, die angaben, dass sie über einen Zeitraum von 2 bis 3 Jahren an Angeboten des Elementarbereichs teilgenommen hatten, schnitten selbst unter Berücksichtigung des sozioökonomischen Hintergrunds besser ab als Kinder, die nur über einen Zeitraum von 1 bis 2 Jahren teilgenommen hatten. Dieser Effekt ist jedoch bei einem Vergleich der Ergebnisse von Kindern mit einer Bildungsbeteiligung am Elementarbereich von 3 bis 4 Jahren und von 2 bis 3 Jahren nicht zu beobachten.“
OECD (Hrsg.), „Bildung auf einen Blick 2017“ (2017), S. 326

Unterrichtsmethoden der PISA-Sieger aus China ...

„Frontalunterricht, das Abfragen kurzer Antworten sowie das Antworten und Wiederholen im Chor sind noch weit verbreitete Unterrichtstechniken, während selbständiges Arbeiten und Gruppenarbeit häufig nur kurz und oberflächlich den Unterricht auflockern.“

Univ.-Prof. Dr. Barbara Schulte, „China“ (2017), S. 6

 

Risiko OECD-weit mehr als vervierfacht ...

The difference in the shares of low achievers in PISA between pupils from the bottom and top 25 % segment of the PISA index of socio-economic and cultural status (ESCS) is striking. As many as 33.8 % pupils from the bottom 25 % segment do not reach the basic level of competence in science, while only 7.6 % of those among the top 25 % on the ESCS index do not reach that level.

EU-Kommission (Hrsg.), Education and Training Monitor 2017 (2017), S. 10

 

Time allocated to after-school study, and particularly to homework, is associated with higher academic achievement ...

„PISA reports reveal that time allocated to after-school study, and particularly to homework, is associated with higher academic achievement.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „Education in Lithuania“ (2017), S. 112

 

The majority of 15-year-old students in almost all European countries speak the language of the PISA test at home ...

„The PISA 2015 data reveals that the majority of 15-year-old students in almost all European countries speak the language of the PISA test at home, which is further considered as a proxy for speaking the language of schooling. The data reveals that, at EU level, 91.0 % of 15-year-old students speak the language of schooling at home.“
EU-Kommission (Hrsg.), „Key Data on Teaching Languages at School in Europe 2017“ (2017), S. 22
In Österreich sind es nur 81,2 %.

Chile, Frankreich, Polen, die Türkei und Großbritannien ...

„These countries show exceptionally large gaps between the socio-economically advantaged and disadvantaged groups. This suggests that disadvantaged children from these countries are less likely to obtain the skills necessary for today’s technology-rich and versatile labour markets and improve their socio-economic status.“
OECD (Hrsg.), „Educational Opportunity for All“ (2017), S. 18

In a number of countries, equity outcomes have deteriorated in the last nine years ...

„In a number of countries, equity outcomes have deteriorated in the last nine years. In Finland and Korea, for example, the gap in science performance between students from different socio-economic backgrounds has widened.“
OECD (Hrsg.), „Educational Opportunity for All“ (2017), S. 20

PISA 2015: In Canada, Israel, Korea, Luxemburg and the Russian Federation, more than half of the variation in mean performance is explained by parents’ levels of education ...

PISA 2015: „In Canada, Israel, Korea, Luxemburg and the Russian Federation, more than half of the variation in mean performance is explained by parents’ levels of education.“
OECD (Hrsg.), „Educational Opportunity for All“ (2017), S. 79

PISA 2015: On average, students who speak another language at home scored 54 points lower than non-immigrant students ...

PISA 2015: „On average, students who speak another language at home scored 448 points in science, which is 54 points lower than non-immigrant students who scored on average 502 points in science.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „Educational Opportunity for All“ (2017), S. 86

In Österreich beträgt der Rückstand sogar 79 Punkte (431 Punkte versus 510 Punkte).

 

Reading stories to younger children has been shown to encourage and improve literacy development ...

„Reading stories to younger children has been shown to encourage and improve literacy development. Fifteen-year-olds who reported their experience in daily interacting with their parents through reading, singing or playing word games when they were of pre-primary school age scored higher on the PISA reading test on average across OECD countries than their peers who did not have such experiences“

OECD (Hrsg.), „Educational Opportunity for All“ (2017), S. 93

 

Increased resources alone are not enough to improve students’ performance ...

„PISA analyses show that increased resources alone are not enough to improve students’ performance. The critical question is how well the resources are spent. Resources invested in school leaders and teachers are found to have high returns.“
OECD (Hrsg.), „Educational Opportunity for All“ (2017), S. 94

Japan: Socio-economic background matters less for academic performance than in most other OECD countries ...

„Japanese pupils achieved excellent scores in all PISA rounds, and adults were the best-performers in the PIAAC Survey of Adult Skills. Japan scores well also in terms of educational equity: socio-economic background matters less for academic performance than in most other OECD countries.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „Investing in Youth: Japan“ (2017), S. 139

 

Relative pay levels of teachers are related to average student performance ...

„Cross-country comparisons using PISA data show that relative pay levels of teachers are related to average student performance in education systems, even after other system-level factors have been accounted for.“
OECD (Hrsg.), „OECD Skills Strategy Diagnostic Report Italy 2017“ (2017), S. 58

Lowest use of Information and Communications Technology at school in the East Asian countries of B‑S‑J‑G ...

„Students in the East Asian countries of B‑S‑J‑G (Anm: die chinesischen Provinzen Beijing, Shanghai, Jiangsu und Guangdong, die an PISA teilgenommen haben), Japan and Korea reported the lowest use of ICT at school.“
OECD (Hrsg.), „PISA 2015 Results. Collaborative Problem Solving“ (2017), S. 83

Computereinsatz und Schülerleistung ...

„On average across OECD countries, students who rank between the 25th and 75th percentiles in the index of ICT use at school (i.e. those in the second and third quarters in their country/economy) perform better than students who use ICT at school the most (those in the top quarter) or the least (those in the bottom quarter). Moreover, students who use ICT the most in their school score 29 points lower in collaborative problem solving, on average, than students who use ICT the least.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „PISA 2015 Results. Collaborative Problem Solving“ (2017), S. 84

 

If parents and teachers establish relationships based on trust ...

If parents and teachers establish relationships based on trust, schools can rely on parents as valuable partners in the cognitive and socio-emotional education of their students.

OECD (Hrsg.), PISA 2015. Students Well-Being (2017), S. 6

 

The countries where many students feel anxious about a test ...

„PISA results show that countries where students are highly motivated to achieve also tend to be the countries where many students feel anxious about a test, even if they are well prepared for it.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „PISA 2015. Students’ Well-Being“ (2017), S. 6

 

Extreme Internet use ...

„In most participating countries, extreme Internet use – more than six hours per day – has a negative relationship with students’ life satisfaction and engagement at school.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „PISA 2015. Students’ Well-Being“ (2017), S. 6

 

Shanghai, Südkorea, Taiwan: Many hours on homework ...

„In these Asian countries/economies, spending many hours on homework and in additional instruction seems to be central to the life of top-performing students.“
OECD (Hrsg.), „PISA 2015. Students’ Well-Being“ (2017), S. 76

In Korea, students start to take additional lessons when they are still very young ...

„In Korea, students start to take additional lessons when they are still very young. On average, 15-year-old Korean students who sit the PISA test have already taken 6.4 years of extra courses.“
OECD (Hrsg.), „PISA 2015. Students’ Well-Being“ (2017), S. 77

On average across OECD countries, immigrant students reported higher achievement motivation than non-immigrant students ...

„On average across OECD countries, immigrant students reported higher achievement motivation than non-immigrant students.“
OECD (Hrsg.), „PISA 2015. Students’ Well-Being“ (2017), S. 94
In Österreich ist dieser Unterschied besonders groß.

Disadvantaged students have lower levels of achievement motivation ...

„In all PISA countries and economies except Belgium and Switzerland, disadvantaged students have lower levels of achievement motivation than advantaged students.“
OECD (Hrsg.), „PISA 2015. Students’ Well-Being“ (2017), S. 94

On average, 13 % of 15-year-olds in the OECD have repeated at least one grade in primary or secondary school ...

„On average, 13 % of 15-year-olds in the OECD have repeated at least one grade in primary or secondary school. […] In France, Luxembourg, Portugal or Spain, the rate of grade repetition is as high as 35 %.“
OECD (Hrsg.), „Trends Shaping Education 2017“ (2017), Spotlight 8, S. 5

China: The students participating in PISA 2015 spent twenty-seven hours a week with studying outside school ...

China: „The students participating in PISA 2015 spent twenty-seven hours a week with studying outside school, probably to a large extent at cram schools.“
Univ.-Prof. Dr. Barbara Schulte, „Private schools in the People's Republic of China: Development, modalities and contradictions“ (2017), S. 7

The performance difference associated with a one-unit increase in the PISA ESCS index ...

„On average across the OECD countries, the performance difference associated with a one-unit increase in the PISA ESCS index is equivalent to more than one year of schooling. The biggest impact of all is found in France, where a one-unit increase in the ESCS index is associated with an average improvement across the three subjects of 56 score points, the equivalent of almost two years’ schooling.“
UNICEF (Hrsg.), „Building the Future. Children and the Sustainable Development Goals in Rich Countries“ (2017), S. 41
Anmerkung: In Österreich sind es 44 Punkte, in Finnland und Deutschland 39 Punkte.

PISA suggests that without strong pedagogy, there is no benefit to having technology in the classroom ...

„The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), which has studied the impact of ICTs on learning outcomes in more than 60 countries through its Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA), suggests that without strong pedagogy, there is no benefit to having technology in the classroom.“

UNICEF (Hrsg.), „Children in a Digital World“ (2017), S. 21

 

Österreich: Mastering analytical thinking and conceptual understanding requires intensive teacher-student interactions ...

Österreich: „PISA data shows that students who use computers moderately at school have somewhat better learning outcomes than students who rarely use them; but students who use computers frequently at school do much worse, even after accounting for socio-economic status and other background factors. As a matter of fact, mastering analytical thinking and conceptual understanding requires intensive teacher-student interactions, and too much technology may distract from this.“
Dr. Volker Ziemann, „Inclusive labour Markets in the digital era: The case of Austria“ (2017), S. 20

Top-performing countries tend to prioritise teacher quality above all ...

„Results from previous editions of PISA show that top-performing countries tend to prioritise teacher quality above all. One important measure to attract and retain quality teachers is through salaries.“
OECD (Hrsg.), „Education Indicators in Focus 46“ (Dezember 2016), S. 3

PISA-Kompetenzstufe 1 ...

„In Deutschland erreichen 16 % der Jugendlichen nicht die absoluten Grundkompetenzen, wie sie die OECD mit der PISA-Kompetenzstufe 1 definiert hat. In Syrien sind das 65 % der Schülerinnen und Schüler (was aufgrund eines Schulbesuchs von nur 69 % im Sekundarschulbereich noch un­terschätzt sein dürfte), in Albanien 59 %.“
Univ.-Prof. Dr. Ludger Wößmann, ifo-Schnelldienst 1/2016 vom 14. Jänner 2016, S. 22

Im Durchschnitt liegt das syrische Leistungsniveau 140 PISA-Punkte hinter dem deutschen ...

„Im Durchschnitt liegt das syrische Leistungsniveau 140 PISA-Punkte hinter dem deutschen, das albanische 123 Punkte. Diese Differenz – wohlgemerkt unter Gleichaltrigen – entspricht in etwa dem, was Schülerinnen und Schüler im Durchschnitt in vier bis fünf Schuljahren lernen.“
Univ.-Prof. Dr. Ludger Wößmann, ifo-Schnelldienst 1/2016 vom 14. Jänner 2016, S. 22

Von Rang 14 auf Rang 20 ...

„Während Österreich im Jahr 2006 noch den 14. Rang unter den 38 OECD-/EU-Ländern einnahm, belegt es 2015 nur mehr Rang 20.“

BIFIE (Hrsg.), „PISA 2015. Grundkompetenzen am Ende der Pflichtschulzeit im internationalen Vergleich“ (2016), S. 41

 

Österreich liegt mit einer Spitzengruppe von 8 % im OECD-Schnitt ...

„Österreich liegt mit einer Spitzengruppe von 8 % im OECD-Schnitt. Die österreichische Naturwissenschafts-Spitzengruppe ist somit rund halb so groß wie in den führenden Ländern.“
BIFIE (Hrsg.), „PISA 2015. Grundkompetenzen am Ende der Pflichtschulzeit im internationalen Vergleich“ (2016), S. 43

In Österreich ist der Anteil an Jugendlichen mit Migrationshintergrund seit PISA 2000 kontinuierlich von 11,1 % auf 20,3 % gestiegen ...

„In Österreich ist der Anteil an Jugendlichen mit Migrationshintergrund seit PISA 2000 kontinuierlich von 11,1 % auf 20,3 % gestiegen.“
BIFIE (Hrsg.), „PISA 2015. Grundkompetenzen am Ende der Pflichtschulzeit im internationalen Vergleich“ (2016), S. 91

Österreich zählt zu den Ländern, in denen Jugendliche mit Migrationshintergrund zu Hause am seltensten die Unterrichtssprache gebrauchen ...

„Österreich zählt gemeinsam mit Luxemburg und Slowenien zu den Ländern, in denen Jugendliche mit Migrationshintergrund zu Hause am seltensten die Unterrichtssprache gebrauchen.“
BIFIE (Hrsg.), „PISA 2015. Grundkompetenzen am Ende der Pflichtschulzeit im internationalen Vergleich“ (2016), S. 91

Österreich: Jugendliche der zweiten Generation sprechen zu 27 % zu Hause überwiegend deutsch ...

„Jugendliche der zweiten Generation, die also selbst bereits in Österreich geboren worden sind, sprechen zu 27 % zu Hause überwiegend deutsch, bei den Jugendlichen, die selbst erst mit ihren Eltern zugewandert sind (erste Generation), liegt dieser Anteil nur unwesentlich niedriger bei 23 %.“
BIFIE (Hrsg.), „PISA 2015. Grundkompetenzen am Ende der Pflichtschulzeit im internationalen Vergleich“ (2016), S. 91

Mehr als drei Viertel des Leistungsrückstands von 15-Jährigen mit Migrationshintergrund auf Sprachdefizite und sozioökonomischen Background zurückzuführen ...

„In Österreich bleiben vom absoluten Leistungsunterschied von 70 Punkten nur mehr 16 Punkte übrig, wenn der sozioökonomische Hintergrund und die Lesekompetenz von Jugendlichen mit und ohne Migrationshintergrund statistisch konstant gehalten werden.“

BIFIE (Hrsg.), „PISA 2015. Grundkompetenzen am Ende der Pflichtschulzeit im internationalen Vergleich“ (2016), S. 95

 

2015 sprachen 67 % der Schülerinnen und Schüler der ersten Zuwanderungsgeneration und 45 % der Schülerinnen und Schüler der zweiten Zuwanderungsgeneration zu Hause nicht die Sprache, in der der PISA-Test durchgeführt wurde ...

„2015 sprachen 67 % der Schülerinnen und Schüler der ersten Zuwanderungsgeneration und 45 % der Schülerinnen und Schüler der zweiten Zuwanderungsgeneration zu Hause nicht die Sprache, in der der PISA-Test durchgeführt wurde“
OECD (Hrsg.), „PISA 2015 Ergebnisse. Exzellenz und Chancengerechtigkeit in der Bildung“ (2016), S. 46f

PISA 2015 im Vergleich mit PISA 2006 ...

„In Finnland, der Slowakischen Republik und den Vereinigten Arabischen Emiraten verschlechterten sich die Schülerleistungen in Naturwissenschaften im Durchschnitt um mehr als 10 Punkte alle drei Jahre (bei Annahme einer kontinuierlichen Veränderungsrate).“

OECD (Hrsg.), „PISA 2015 Ergebnisse. Exzellenz und Chancengerechtigkeit in der Bildung“ (2016), S. 92

 

Wahrscheinlichkeit, das Grundkompetenzniveau im Bereich Naturwissenschaften nicht zu erreichen ...

„Die Wahrscheinlichkeit, das Grundkompetenzniveau im Bereich Naturwissenschaften nicht zu erreichen, ist in den OECD-Ländern bei sozioökonomisch benachteiligten Schülerinnen und Schülern fast dreimal so hoch wie bei sozioökonomisch begünstigten Schülerinnen und Schülern.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „PISA 2015 Ergebnisse. Exzellenz und Chancengerechtigkeit in der Bildung“ (2016), S. 218

 

Bildungsgerechtigkeit neu definiert ...

„In PISA bedeutet Bildungsgerechtigkeit, dass allen Schülerinnen und Schülern, unabhängig von ihrem Geschlecht, ihrem familiären Hintergrund oder ihrem sozioökonomischen Status, qualitativ hochwertige Bildungschancen geboten werden. Nach dieser Definition bedeutet Bildungsgerechtigkeit weder, dass alle die gleichen Ergebnisse erzielen sollten, noch dass bei allen Schülerinnen und Schülern die gleichen Standardlehr- und -lernmethoden zum Einsatz kommen sollten.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „PISA 2015 Ergebnisse. Exzellenz und Chancengerechtigkeit in der Bildung“ (2016), S. 219

 

Ursachen der Leistungsvarianz ...

„Zu den Ursachen der Leistungsvarianz zählen in der Tat nicht nur die Lebensumstände der Schülerinnen und Schüler, sondern auch ihre unterschiedlichen Interessen und Erwartungen sowie ihre Einsatzbereitschaft.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „PISA 2015 Ergebnisse. Exzellenz und Chancengerechtigkeit in der Bildung“ (2016), S. 224

 

Attitude-Achievement-Paradox ...

„Die in PISA ermittelten Durchschnittswerte für naturwissenschaftliche Aktivitäten, Freude an Naturwissenschaften und instrumentelle Motivation korrelieren allesamt negativ mit den Durchschnittsergebnissen in PISA, ein Phänomen, das häufig als „Attitude-Achievement-Paradox“ bezeichnet wird.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „PISA 2015 Ergebnisse. Exzellenz und Chancengerechtigkeit in der Bildung“ (2016), S. 148-151

 

Sicherzustellen, dass die begabtesten und nicht die wohlhabendsten Schülerinnen und Schüler Zugang zu den besten Bildungsmöglichkeiten haben ...

„Sicherzustellen, dass die begabtesten und nicht die wohlhabendsten Schülerinnen und Schüler Zugang zu den besten Bildungsmöglichkeiten haben, ermöglicht […] einen effizienten Einsatz von Ressourcen und eine generelle Verbesserung der Ergebnisse im Bildungs- und Sozialbereich.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „PISA 2015 Ergebnisse. Exzellenz und Chancengerechtigkeit in der Bildung“ (2016), S. 218

 

Konzentration von Schülerinnen und Schülern mit Migrationshintergrund nicht automatisch negative Effekte ...

„Die Konzentration von Schülerinnen und Schülern mit Migrationshintergrund in bestimmten Schulen hat nicht automatisch negative Effekte auf die Leistungen oder die soziale Integration der Schüler.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „PISA 2015 Ergebnisse. Exzellenz und Chancengerechtigkeit in der Bildung“ (2016), S. 278

 

Leistungsabstand zwischen 15-Jährigen mit und ohne Migrationshintergrund ...

„2015 entfielen im OECD-Durchschnitt rd. 40 % dieses Leistungsabstands auf den sozioökonomischen Status der Schüler und ihre Vertrautheit mit der Unterrichts- bzw. Testsprache in den Aufnahmeländern.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „PISA 2015 Ergebnisse. Exzellenz und Chancengerechtigkeit in der Bildung“ (2016), S. 299

 

Absentismus ...

„Auffallend hohe Quoten von Schulleitungen, die das Lernen und Schulklima an ihrer Schule durch Absentismus gefährdet sehen, finden sich in Finnland (44 Prozent), Österreich (49 Prozent), Slowenien (53 Prozent) und Kanada (56 Prozent).“

Univ.-Prof. Dr. Kristina Reiss u. a., „PISA 2015. Eine Studie zwischen Kontinuität und Innovation“ (2016), S. 210

 

Das sozioökonomische Niveau der Elternhäuser ...

„In den skandinavischen Staaten Finnland, Schweden oder Norwegen sowie der Schweiz oder Kanada liegt der sozioökonomische Status signifikant über dem OECD-Mittelwert.“

Univ.-Prof. Dr. Kristina Reiss u. a., „PISA 2015. Eine Studie zwischen Kontinuität und Innovation“ (2016), S. 291f

Anmerkung: In Österreich liegt das sozioökonomische Niveau der Elternhäuser sogar schon unter dem OECD-Mittelwert!

 

Finnlands PISA-Talfahrt ...

„Not only did the score point average drop by an equivalent of half a school year (25 points) from the 2003 results quoted above, but the bottom 10 % of Finnish schools fell markedly further than most schools. […] The effect of socio-economic background on individual outcomes was also shown to have grown significantly, as the effect of one unit increase in the SES background grew from 28 points to 33 points.“
Univ.-Prof. Dr. Venla Bernelius u. a., „Choice and segregation in the ‘most egalitarian’ schools: Cumulative decline in urban schools and neighbourhoods of Helsinki, Finland“. In: „Urban Studies“, 2016, Vol. 53(15), S. 3157

Students who are exposed to more student-oriented instruction score lower ...

„On average across OECD countries, students who are exposed to more student-oriented instruction score about 22 points lower than students who are less exposed to this strategy, before any other variable is taken into account. After accounting for the other teaching strategies, students who reported more exposure to student-oriented instruction score about 26 points lower.“
Dr. Alfonso Echazarra u. a., „How teachers teach and students learn: Successful strategies for school“ (2016), S. 56

Finnland: One of the largest performance gaps between native-born and firstgeneration migrants of participating EU countries ...

Finnland: „PISA 2012 showed a skills gap of about two years for first-generation immigrants, depending on the subject. This is one of the largest performance gaps between native-born and firstgeneration migrants of participating EU countries.“
EU-Kommission (Hrsg.), „Education and Training Monitor 2016 – Country analysis“

Sweden experienced the most rapid decline of all OECD countries in the performance of 15 year-olds ...

„Sweden experienced the most rapid decline of all OECD countries in the performance of 15 year-olds, as measured in the OECD’s Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) survey.“

EU-Kommission (Hrsg.), „Education and Training Monitor 2016 – Country analysis“ (2016), S. 278

 

Greater risks for students with an immigrant background particularly pronounced in Austria, Belgium, Germany, France and Israel ...

„Students with an immigrant background […] on average in the OECD, are 1.2 times more likely to have reported arriving late for school at least once in the two weeks prior to the PISA test. These greater risks for students with an immigrant background are particularly pronounced in Austria, Belgium, Germany, France and Israel.“
Dr. Anna Gromada u. a., „Student Learning Time“ (2016), S. 48
Im OECD-Mittel beträgt der Faktor 1,26, in Österreich ist er mit 1,93 am größten.

School emphasis on academic success had the most significant influence on the relationship between SES and achievement ...

„School emphasis on academic success had the most significant influence on the relationship between SES and achievement. In Australia, Canada (Quebec), Chinese Taipei, Finland, Lithuania, and Slovenia, more equity was observed in schools with greater emphasis on academic success.“
Dr. Trude Nielsen u. a., „Are school characteristics related to equity?“ (2016), S. 4

Immigrant students who reported that they had attended pre-primary education programmes score 49 points higher ...

„Immigrant students who reported that they had attended pre-primary education programmes score 49 points higher on the OECD Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) reading test than immigrant students who reported that they had not participated in such programmes.“
OECD (Hrsg.), „Education at a Glance 2016“ (2016), S. 29
49 PISA-Punkte entsprechen einem Lernvorsprung von etwa eineinviertel Jahren!

The amount of time that students spend learning is a basic component of their opportunity to learn ...

„The amount of time that students spend learning is a basic component of their opportunity to learn. […] An increase in class time of up to four hours per week is associated with a large improvement in performance in the three PISA subjects.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „Equations and Inequalities“ (2016), S. 133

 

Between 2000 and 2012, Sweden’s PISA performance dropped ...

„Between 2000 and 2012, Sweden’s PISA performance dropped from close to the OECD average to significantly below average, the most significant decline of any OECD country.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „Investing in Youth: Sweden“ (2016), S. 52

 

Making school achievement data public is not correlated with better student outcomes ...

„PISA 2012 analyses make it clear that simply making school achievement data public is not correlated with better student outcomes.“
OECD (Hrsg.), „Governing Education in a Complex World“ (2016), S. 168


Students who had skipped school at least once in the two weeks prior to the PISA test ...

„Students who had skipped school at least once in the two weeks prior to the PISA test are three times more likely to be low performers in mathematics than students who had not skipped school.“
OECD (Hrsg.), „Low-Performing Students“ (2016), S. 102

Students who had skipped some classes or arrived late for school ...

„Across OECD countries, students who had skipped some classes or arrived late for school at least once during the two weeks prior to the PISA test were about twice more likely to be low performers in mathematics than those who had not skipped classes or arrived late for school, after accounting for their socio-economic status, gender, immigrant background and attendance at pre-primary education.“
OECD (Hrsg.), „Low-Performing Students“ (2016), S. 104

Aus den PISA-Kontextfragen an SchulleiterInnen ...

„PISA finds that low performers in mathematics are more likely than students who perform at or above baseline Level 2 to attend schools that suffer from a lack of qualified teachers.“
OECD (Hrsg.), „Low-Performing Students“ (2016), S. 160

In 2012, Austrian students reported the highest level of overall well-being ...

„In 2012, Austrian students reported the highest level of overall well-being as measured by an index of sense of belonging at school across all OECD countries participating in PISA 2012.“
OECD (Hrsg.), „OECD Reviews of School Resources – Austria“ (2016), S. 55

Estland: More than one in three 15 year-olds are in an academically selective school ...

Estland: „More than one in three 15 year-olds are in an academically selective school whose principal reported that at least students’ records of academic performance or recommendations of feeder schools is always considered for admission.“
OECD (Hrsg.), „OECD Reviews of School Resources – Estonia“ (2016), S. 64

Estland: The percentage of students who feel happy at school one of the lowest among OECD countries ...

„While 15 year-olds in Estonia do very well in international assessments, the percentage of students who feel happy at school, however, is one of the lowest among OECD countries.“
OECD (Hrsg.), „OECD Reviews of School Resources – Estonia“ (2016), S. 65

Estland 2012: 37 % of 15-year-old Estonian students were in a school that always considered students’ records of academic performance for admission to the school ...

„In the PISA 2012 sample, 37 % of 15-year-old Estonian students were in a school that always considered students’ records of academic performance for admission to the school, which is around the OECD average of 39 %.“
OECD (Hrsg.), „OECD Reviews of School Resources – Estonia“ (2016), S. 168

Pervasive truancy in a school seems to affect even students who may not be truants themselves ...

„Pervasive truancy in a school seems to affect even students who may not be truants themselves. […] Student truancy has a discernible effect on the learning environment and, ultimately, on student performance and engagement.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „PISA 2015 Results. Policies and Practices for Successful Schools“ (2016), S. 36

 

Students do not score higher in science when frequently exposed to enquirybased instruction ...

„Perhaps surprisingly, in no education system do students who reported that they are frequently exposed to enquirybased instruction (when they are encouraged to experiment and engage in hands-on activities) score higher in science.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „PISA 2015 Results (Volume II). Policies and Practices for Successful Schools“ (2016), S. 36

 

No association between school autonomy and student performance ...

„After accounting for the socio-economic profile of students and schools, there is no association between school autonomy and student performance in science, on average across OECD countries.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „PISA 2015 Results. Policies and Practices for Successful Schools“ (2016), S. 37

 

Doppelt so viel Unterrichtszeit ...

„In Canada, Chile, Denmark and Hong Kong (China), 15-year-olds spend five hours per week in language-of-instruction classes, while students in Austria, Finland and Russia spend less than 2 hours and 30 minutes per week in these classes.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „PISA 2015 Results (Volume II): Policies and Practices for Successful Schools (2016), S. 43

 

Förderung besonderer Interessen und Begabungen ...

„Across OECD countries, 39 % of students are enrolled in schools that offer a science club (Anm.: in Österreich nur 5 %) and 66 % attend schools that offer science competitions (Anm.: in Österreich nur 31 %).“

OECD (Hrsg.), „PISA 2015 Results (Volume II): Policies and Practices for Successful Schools (2016), S. 59

 

Teacher-directed science instruction ...

„The goal of teacher-directed science instruction is to provide a well-structured, clear and informative lesson on a topic, which usually includes teachers’ explanations, classroom debates and students’ questions. Even if these strategies render students passive during class, some teacher direction is essential if students are expected to acquire generally accepted science knowledge.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „PISA 2015 Results (Volume II): Policies and Practices for Successful Schools (2016), S. 63

 

Teacher-directed instruction ...

„Across OECD countries, teacher-directed instruction is more commonly used in socio-economically advantaged schools than in disadvantaged schools.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „PISA 2015 Results (Volume II): Policies and Practices for Successful Schools (2016), S. 65

 

Lehrerzentrierter Unterricht ...

„In all but three education systems – Indonesia, Korea and Peru – using teacher-directed instruction more frequently is associated with higher science achievement, after accounting for the socio-economic status of students and schools; and students in all countries also hold stronger epistemic beliefs, such as believing that scientific ideas change in light of new evidence, when their teachers used these strategies more frequently.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „PISA 2015 Results (Volume II): Policies and Practices for Successful Schools (2016), S. 65

 

Erklärendes Lehren ...

„On average across OECD countries, and after accounting for the socio-economic status of students and schools, students who reported that their teacher explains scientific ideas “in many lessons” or in “every lesson” score 28 points higher in science. […] However, students score somewhat lower in science when they reported that a whole class discussion occurs “in many lessons” or “every lesson”.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „PISA 2015 Results (Volume II): Policies and Practices for Successful Schools (2016), S. 65

 

Forschendes Lernen ...

„After accounting for students’ and schools’ socio-economic profile, greater exposure to enquiry-based instruction is negatively associated with science performance in 56 countries and economies. Perhaps surprisingly, in no education system do students who reported that they are frequently exposed to enquiry-based instruction score higher in science.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „PISA 2015 Results (Volume II): Policies and Practices for Successful Schools (2016), S. 71

 

Hands-on activities ...

„Some of the arguments against using hands-on activities in science class should not be completely disregarded. These include that these activities do not promote deep knowledge, that they are an inefficient use of time, or that they only work when there is good laboratory material and teacher preparation.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „PISA 2015 Results (Volume II): Policies and Practices for Successful Schools (2016), S. 71

 

What makes schools effective ...

„Research into what makes schools effective finds that learning requires an orderly, supportive and positive environment both in and outside the classroom.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „PISA 2015 Results (Volume II): Policies and Practices for Successful Schools (2016), S. 81

 

Schulschwänzen ...

„On average across OECD countries, students who had skipped a whole day of school at least once in the two weeks prior to the PISA assessment score 45 points lower in the science assessment than students who had not skipped a day of school (33 points lower after accounting for the socio-economic profile of students and schools).“

OECD (Hrsg.), „PISA 2015 Results (Volume II): Policies and Practices for Successful Schools (2016), S. 81

 

Zuspätkommen ...

„On average across OECD countries, students who had arrived late for school at least once in the two weeks prior to the PISA assessment score 27 points lower on the science assessment than students who had never arrived late, and 23 points lower after accounting for the socio-economic profile of students and schools.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „PISA 2015 Results (Volume II): Policies and Practices for Successful Schools (2016), S. 84

 

Students in smaller classes reported more frequently than students in larger classes that their teachers adapt their instruction to their needs ...

„On average across OECD countries, students in smaller classes reported more frequently than students in larger classes that their teachers adapt their instruction to their needs, knowledge and level of understanding.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „PISA 2015 Results (Volume II): Policies and Practices for Successful Schools (2016), S. 184

 

Respektlosigkeit ...

„The most negative association with science performance, both before and after accounting for the socio-economic status of students and schools, is students lacking respect for their teachers, followed by student truancy, students skipping classes and students intimidating or bullying other students.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „PISA 2015 Results (Volume II): Policies and Practices for Successful Schools (2016), S. 93

 

Lehrergehälter ...

„On average, the salaries of teachers with minimum training and 15 years of experience in OECD countries exceed the per capita GDP in their country by 10 % for lower secondary teachers and by 16 % for upper secondary teachers.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „PISA 2015 Results (Volume II): Policies and Practices for Successful Schools (2016), S. 193

Anmerkung: In Österreich liegt das Gehalt der LehrerInnen der Sekundarstufe I nicht um 10 % über, sondern um 2 % unter dem BIP/Kopf, und das der Sekundarstufe II nicht um 16 %, sondern nur um 6 % über dem BIP/Kopf. (Quelle: OECD (Hrsg.), „PISA 2015 Results (Volume II): Policies and Practices for Successful Schools (2016), Table II.6.54)

 

Schools with smaller classes ...

„PISA 2015 findings show that, on average across OECD countries, in schools with smaller classes, students were more likely to report that their teachers adapt their lessons to students’ needs and knowledge, provide individual help to struggling students, and change the structure of the lesson if students find it difficult to follow.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „PISA 2015 Results (Volume II): Policies and Practices for Successful Schools (2016), S. 208

 

Hours in regular mathematics lessons ...

„In Chile, Peru and Singapore, students spend more than five hours in regular mathematics lessons, whereas in Austria, Bulgaria, Croatia and Montenegro students spend less than half of that time in mathematics class.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „PISA 2015 Results (Volume II): Policies and Practices for Successful Schools (2016), S. 211

 

Benefits of doing homework ...

„Doing homework can help students identify and apply material they have learned, provide additional stimulation for highperforming students, and guarantee that struggling students are learning the basics.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „PISA 2015 Results (Volume II): Policies and Practices for Successful Schools (2016), S. 216

 

Personelle versus pädagogische Autonomie ...

„In Finland, school principals exercised greater autonomy over selecting and firing teachers in 2015 than in 2009, but had less responsibility for the curriculum and for assessment and disciplinary policies.“
OECD (Hrsg.), „PISA 2015 Results (Volume II). Policies and Practices for Successful Schools (2016), S. 113

Frei finanzierte Privatschulen ...

„In Japan, Lebanon, Peru, Qatar, Chinese Taipei and the United Arab Emirates, at least one in four students are enrolled in government-independent private schools.“
OECD (Hrsg.), „PISA 2015 Results (Volume II). Policies and Practices for Successful Schools (2016), S. 124

Greater choice to parents and students ...

„In recent decades, reforms in many countries have tended to give greater choice to parents and students, to enable them to choose the schools that meet the child’s education needs or preferences.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „PISA 2015 Results (Volume II): Policies and Practices for Successful Schools (2016), S. 126

 

Schools conduct their own entrance examinations in Macao ...

„In Macao (China), although there are no national examinations, schools conduct their own entrance examinations at both the lower and upper secondary levels.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „PISA 2015 Results (Volume II): Policies and Practices for Successful Schools (2016), S. 130

 

Promoting students regardless of their mastery of the content ...

„If the curriculum is cumulative and further learning depends on a solid understanding of what had been previously learned, then promoting students regardless of their mastery of the content might put lowperforming students in an increasingly difficult position at higher grades.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „PISA 2015 Results (Volume II): Policies and Practices for Successful Schools (2016), S. 160

 

Low academic inclusion in the Netherlands ...

„The low academic inclusion in the Netherlands is not associated with greater socio-economic segregation of students across schools.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „PISA 2015 Results (Volume II): Policies and Practices for Successful Schools (2016), S. 173

 

Countries with low academic inclusion and high social inclusion ...

„Some countries and economies, such as the Netherlands, have low academic inclusion (performance varies considerably between schools) and high social inclusion (advantaged and disadvantaged students are relatively evenly distributed across schools), whereas others, like Spain, have high academic inclusion and low socio-economic inclusion. […] The low academic inclusion in the Netherlands is not associated with greater socio-economic segregation of students across schools.“
OECD (Hrsg.), „PISA 2015 Results (Volume II): Policies and Practices for Successful Schools (2016), S. 173

 

Ability grouping becoming popular again ...

„Ability grouping within the same school appears to be becoming popular again. […] Across OECD countries, 46 % of students attend schools whose principal reported that students are grouped by ability into different classes.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „PISA 2015 Results (Volume II): Policies and Practices for Successful Schools (2016), S. 176

 

Ability-grouped classes ...

„In Australia, Canada, Hong Kong (China), Ireland, Israel, Malta, New Zealand, Singapore, Thailand, the United Kingdom, the United States and Viet Nam, at least three in four students receive instruction in at least one subject in an ability-grouped class.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „PISA 2015 Results (Volume II): Policies and Practices for Successful Schools (2016), S. 176

 

Teachers adapt their instruction to students’ needs in smaller classes ...

„On average across OECD countries, students in smaller classes reported more frequently than students in larger classes that their teachers adapt their instruction to students’ needs, knowledge and level of understanding.“

OECD (Hrsg.), PISA 2015. Results in Focus (2016), S. 11

 

Extracurricular activities can improve students' cognitive and non-cognitive skills ...

„Extracurricular activities, such as sports activities and teams, debate clubs, academic clubs, bands, orchestras or choirs, can improve students’ cognitive and non-cognitive skills.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „PISA 2015 Results (Volume II): Policies and Practices for Successful Schools (2016), S. 218

 

Skills needed to succeed in school - and beyond ...

„Skills such as persistence, independence, following instructions, working well within groups, dealing with authority figures and fitting in with peers are needed for students to succeed in school – and beyond.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „PISA 2015 Results (Volume II): Policies and Practices for Successful Schools (2016), S. 218

 

Inequalities already present when students enter formal schooling ...

„Many of the inequalities observed in school systems are already present when students first enter formal schooling and persist as students progress through education.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „PISA 2015 Results (Volume II): Policies and Practices for Successful Schools (2016), S. 218

 

Where students spend 30 hours per week learning at school, and 27 hours after school ...

„In Beijing-Shanghai-Jiangsu-Guangdong (China) students spend 30 hours per week learning at school, and 27 hours after school.“
OECD (Hrsg.), „PISA 2015 Results (Volume II). Policies and Practices for Successful Schools (2016), S. 227

Highly qualified candidates for the teaching profession ...

„The most successful education systems select and retain highly qualified candidates for the teaching profession and ensure that they are constantly improving.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „PISA 2015 Results (Volume II): Policies and Practices for Successful Schools (2016), S. 230

 

12 OECD-Staaten haben die maximale Ausschlussquote bei PISA 2015 missachtet ...

„The sampling standards used in PISA permitted countries to exclude up to a total of 5 % of the relevant population either by excluding schools or by excluding students within schools. All but 12 countries – the United Kingdom (8.22 %), Luxembourg (8.16 %), Canada (7.49 %), Norway (6.75 %), New Zealand (6.54 %), Sweden (5.71 %), Estonia (5.52 %), Australia (5.31 %), Montenegro (5.17 %), Lithuania (5.12 %), Latvia (5.07 %), and Denmark (5.04 %) – achieved this standard.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „PISA 2015 Results (Volume II): Policies and Practices for Successful Schools (2016), S. 247f

 

Teachers are more likely to use all teaching practices if there is a better disciplinary climate ...

„According to PISA data, students say that their teachers are more likely to use all teaching practices if there is a better disciplinary climate (except for student-oriented strategies), a system of classroom management in place, and students feel supported by their teachers and have good relations with them. Other PISA findings also show that the disciplinary climate in mathematics lessons and student performance go hand-in-hand.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „Ten Questions for Mathematics Teachers“ (2016), S. 29

 

Südkorea: Korean 15-year-olds reported being the unhappiest among all participating countries ...

Südkorea: „Despite being one of the highest performing countries in PISA, 2012 results also showed that Korean 15-year-olds reported being the unhappiest among all participating countries. This unhappiness among Korean children appears to stem from the education system and, more specifically, from the pressure they face to excel academically.“
UNESCO (Hrsg.), „Happy Schools!” (2016), S. 29

Südkorea: Less than 6 per cent of students rest at home after school ...

Südkorea: „Although more than 60 per cent of students reported that they hoped to rest at home after school, in reality less than 6 per cent reported doing so. Similarly, while almost half of the children reported that they hoped to play with friends after school, only around 23 per cent did so in reality.“
UNESCO (Hrsg.), „Happy Schools!” (2016), S. 29

Students in Shanghai report more unhappiness and parental pressure compared with their international peers ...

„Students in Shanghai report more unhappiness and parental pressure compared with their international peers.“
Weltbank (Hrsg.), „How Shanghai Does It“ (2016), Executive Summary, S. XXIV

Students in Shanghai are found to have one of the heaviest homework loads ...

„Students in Shanghai are found to have one of the heaviest homework loads as revealed by the student questionnaire on the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) tests, with about 11 hours per week devoted to homework.“
Weltbank (Hrsg.), „How Shanghai Does It“ (2016), S. 95
Österreich: 4,5 Stunden; OECD-Mittelwert: 4,9 Stunden

Shanghai is one of the most equal education systems among the PISA participants ...

„Shanghai is one of the most equal education systems among the PISA participants. For example, it has the highest proportion of resilient students (19.2 percent), that is, disadvantaged students who perform among the top 25 percent of students across all participating countries and economies after controlling for socioeconomic status.“
Weltbank (Hrsg.), „How Shanghai Does It“ (2016), S. 102

Shanghai emerged as one of the most equal education systems among PISA participants ...

„Shanghai emerged as one of the most equal education systems among PISA participants, with the highest proportion of disadvantaged students performing among the top 25 percent of students across all participating countries and economies after controlling for socioeconomic status.“
Weltbank (Hrsg.), „How Shanghai Does It“ (2016), S. 139

Students in Shanghai report a high level of parental pressure and unhappiness ...

„Students in Shanghai report a high level of parental pressure and unhappiness when compared with their international peers.“
Weltbank (Hrsg.), „How Shanghai Does It“ (2016), S. 143

Countries where teachers’ salaries are higher ...

„PISA shows that, on average, a higher percentage of students expects to work as teachers in countries where teachers’ salaries are higher.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „PISA in Focus“ Nr. 58, Dezember 2015, S. 1

 

15-year-old pupils in Denmark and Austria ...

„15-year-old pupils in Denmark receive four hours of instruction per week in mathematics and 4.7 hours in language, while pupils of the same age in Austria receive only 2.7 hours of weekly classroom lessons in mathematics and 2.4 hours in language.“

Univ.-Prof. Dr. Victor Lavy, „Do Differences in Schools' Instruction Time Explain International Achievement Gaps?“ in „The Economic Journal“ 125 (November 2015), S. 397

 

Total weekly hours of instruction in mathematics, language and science is 55 % higher in Denmark than in Austria ...

„Overall, total weekly hours of instruction in mathematics, language and science is 55 % higher in Denmark (11.5 hours) than in Austria (7.4 hours).“

Univ.-Prof. Dr. Victor Lavy, „Do Differences in Schools' Instruction Time Explain International Achievement Gaps?“ in „The Economic Journal“ 125 (November 2015), S. 397

 

The average 15-year-old student in an OECD country ...

„Based on students’ self-reports in PISA 2012, the average 15-year-old student in an OECD country spends 3 hours and 38 minutes per week in mathematics lessons. […] Across OECD countries, students in 2012 spent an average of 13 minutes per week more in mathematics classes than they did in 2003.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „PISA in Focus“, Nr. 54, August 2015, S. 1f

In Österreich sind es hingegen nur 2 Stunden 36 Minuten; um 10 Minuten weniger als im Jahr 2003. (Quelle: ebendort)

 

In ihrer Freizeit verbringen Jungen mehr Zeit mit Videospielen und weniger Zeit mit Lesen ...

„In ihrer Freizeit verbringen Jungen mehr Zeit mit Videospielen und weniger Zeit mit Lesen, vor allem von komplexen Texten, z.B. Romanen. Die Lesekompetenz ist das Fundament, auf dem alles weitere Lernen aufbaut. Fehlt es Schülern an Lesekompetenz, leidet auch ihre Leistung in anderen Fächern.“
OECD (Hrsg.), „PISA im Fokus 49“ (März 2015), S. 1

Österreichs Mathematik-Ergebnis bei PISA 2012 ...

„After accounting for the PISA index of economic, social and cultural status (ESCS), mathematics performance of students attending schools located in a village, hamlet or rural area (fewer than 3 000 people) is one of the highest among PISA-participating countries and economies.“

OECD, „Education GPS online“, Abfrage vom 9. Februar 2015

 

Nearly one-third of teachers on average report losing quite a lot of time to behavioural problems ...

„Nearly one-third of teachers on average report losing quite a lot of time to behavioural problems or waiting for students to take their seats. One in four teachers (26 %) report that there is a lot of disruptive noise in their classrooms.“
OECD (Hrsg.), „Education Indicators in Focus 29“ (Februar 2015), S. 3

Higher levels of anxiety in most of the highest-performing countries/economies in PISA ...

„Students in most of the highest-performing countries/economies in PISA, such as Hong Kong-China, Japan, Korea, Macao-China, Shanghai-China, Singapore and Chinese Taipei, reported higher levels of anxiety than would have been expected given their performance.“
OECD (Hrsg.), „PISA in Focus 48“ (Februar 2015), S. 1

Die Effektstärke des Leistungsunterschieds zwischen Schülerinnen und Schülern mit und ohne Migrationshintergrund liegt am Ende der Grundschule deutlich höher als bei PISA ...

„Beim Vergleich dieser beiden Studien zeigt sich, dass die Effektstärke des Leistungsunterschieds zwischen Schülerinnen und Schülern mit und ohne Migrationshintergrund am Ende der Grundschule deutlich höher liegt als bei PISA.“
BIFIE (Hrsg.), „PIRLS & TIMSS 2011“ (2015), S. 79

15-Jährige Österreichs mit Schule sehr zufrieden ...

„82 % of students are satisfied with their school (a larger proportion than in most OECD countries) and 77 % of students find the conditions in their school ideal, compared to the OECD average of 61 %.“

Michael Bruneforth, MA, u. a., „Country Background Report for Austria“ (2015), S. 117

 

Österreichs 15-Jährige fühlen sich in der Schule wohl ...

„While in 2003 Austria was already one of the countries where students expressed the strongest sense of belonging at school, the situation improved further until 2012: the proportion of students who reported that they feel lonely at school shrank from an already low level, and the proportion of students who reported that other students seem to like them increased from 78 % to 94 %.“

Michael Bruneforth, MA, u. a., „Country Background Report for Austria“ (2015), S. 117

 

Finnland: Only 18.2 % of Finnish students use ICT for projects or class work ...

Finnland: „Only 18.2 % of Finnish students use ICT for projects or class work, far below the average of the participating EU (34 %) and OECD countries (37.5 %). The weekly usage of desktop and laptop computers at grade 8 and 11 is among the lowest in the EU.“
EU-Kommission (Hrsg.), „Education and Training Monitor 2015 - Country analysis“ (2015), S. 91

Schweden ...

„The performance of 15 year-olds in the OECD’s Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) surveys deteriorated steadily between 2000 and 2012 in all three core subjects measured — mathematics, reading and science. The decline over the past decade has been greater than that of any other country participating in PISA.“

EU-Kommission (Hrsg.), „Education and Training Monitor 2015 - Country analysis“ (2015), S. 262

 

England: The problem of underachievement worsens in the final years of lower secondary education ...

„England’s average position in the PISA 2012 study compared to above average performance in the IEA’s Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) and Progress in International Reading Literacy Study (PIRLS) of fourth and eighth graders (years 5 and 9 in the UK), indicates that the problem of underachievement worsens in the final years of lower secondary education.“
EU-Kommission (Hrsg.), „Education and Training Monitor 2015 - Country analysis“ (2015), S. 274

33 % are in schools whose students are grouped by ability within their classes ...

„On average across 26 EU 13 % of 15-year-olds are in schools reporting that students are grouped by ability within their Mathematics classes in all classes; 33 % are in schools whose students are grouped by ability within their classes in some classes and 54 % are in schools reporting they are not grouped by ability within any of their classes.“
EU-Kommission (Hrsg.), „Teaching Practices in Primary and Secondary Schools in Europe“ (2015), S. 76

Arbeitsmoral der LehrerInnen ...

„The highest positive values of the index are found for Austria, United Kingdom and Ireland, and the lowest negative values for the index were found in Italy, Spain and Greece.“

EU-Kommission (Hrsg.), „Teaching Practices in Primary and Secondary Schools in Europe“ (2015), S. 98

 

Finland has the largest gender gap of any PISA participant ...

„With its 62 point gap, Finland has the largest gender gap of any PISA participant, with girls scoring 556 and boys scoring 494 points (the OECD average is 496, with a standard deviation of 94). If Finland were only a nation of young men, its PISA ranking would be mediocre.“
Dr. Tom Loveless, „How well are American Students Learning?“ (2015), S. 3

Finnish superiority in reading only exists among females ...

„Finnish superiority in reading only exists among females. […] Finland’s gender gap illustrates the superficiality of much of the commentary on that country’s PISA performance.“
Dr. Tom Loveless, „How well are American Students Learning?“ (2015), S. 13

Positive correlation between average class size and the reported proportion of students with behaviour problems ...

„There is a positive correlation between average class size and the reported proportion of students with behaviour problems.“
OECD (Hrsg.), Education at a Glance 2015: OECD Indicators“ (2015), S. 418

Schools whose students spend more hours on homework and other study time set by teachers tend to perform better in PISA 2012 ...

„The average learning time in regular mathematics lessons is positively related to students’ performance at the school level, and schools whose students spend more hours on homework and other study time set by teachers tend to perform better in PISA 2012.“
OECD (Hrsg.), „Education Policy Outlook 2015 – Making Reforms Happen“ (2015), S. 81

According to Japanese students in PISA 2012, student truancy is low and conduciveness to learning in classrooms is above the OECD average ...

„According to Japanese students in PISA 2012, student truancy is low (8.9%, compared to the OECD average of 35.3%), and conduciveness to learning in classrooms (disciplinary climate) is above the OECD average.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „Education Policy Outlook. Japan“ (2015), S. 10

 

About 15 % of the variation in students’ mathematics performance can be explained by their socio-economic background ...

„On average across OECD countries, about 15 % of the variation in students’ mathematics performance can be explained by their socio-economic background. The countries where the variation in PISA mathematics performance can be explained to a larger extent by socio-economic background are the Slovak Republic, Chile, Hungary and France.“
OECD (Hrsg.), „Government at a Glance 2015“ (2015), S. 186

Examination Hell ...

„OECD data indicate that there are a number of high-achieving nations where many students are not happy with school. These high achievement/low engagement systems include Korea, where students describe their secondary school experience as ‚Examination Hell‘, and Finland.“
OECD (Hrsg.), „Improving Schools in Scotland“ (2015), S. 121

Schweden: Student performance on PISA has declined dramatically ...

Schweden: „Student performance on the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) has declined dramatically, from near the OECD average in 2000 to significantly below the average in 2012. No other country participating in PISA saw a steeper decline than Sweden over that period.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „Improving Schools in Sweden: An OECD Perspective“ (2015), S. 7

 

In 2012 Sweden ranked 28 among the 34 OECD countries in mathematics, 27 in reading and 27 in science ...

„In the most recent PISA assessment, in 2012, Sweden ranked 28 among the 34 OECD countries in mathematics, 27 in reading and 27 in science.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „Improving Schools in Sweden: An OECD Perspective“ (2015), S. 27

 

The share of 15-year-old students in Sweden who do not reach the baseline level of mathematics proficiency increased from 17 % to 27 % between 2003 and 2012 ...

„The share of 15-year-old students in Sweden who do not reach the baseline level of mathematics proficiency increased from 17 % to 27 % between 2003 and 2012, above the OECD average of 23 %.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „Improving Schools in Sweden: An OECD Perspective“ (2015), S. 28

In Österreich betrug dieser Anteil im Jahr 2003 ebenso wie im Jahr 2012 19 Prozent.

 

Native-born children of immigrants who attended pre-primary school are a full year ahead of their peers who stayed at home ...

„According to PISA, native-born children of immigrants who attended pre-primary school are a full year ahead of their peers who stayed at home, in terms of reading skills.“
OECD (Hrsg.), „OECD Skills Outlook 2015“ (2015), S. 57

Compared to the international average, a much smaller proportion of Korean 15-year-olds report being happy at school ...

„Compared to the international average, a much smaller proportion of Korean 15-year-olds report being happy at school and thinking that school can be useful for their job or decision making.“
OECD (Hrsg.), „OECD Skills Strategy Diagnostic Report Korea 2015“ (2015), S. 50

Children whose parents engage in reading, writing words, telling stories and singing songs ...

„Analysis of PISA data shows that children whose parents engage in reading, writing words, telling stories and singing songs not only tend to score better in reading literacy but are also more motivated to learn.“
OECD (Hrsg.), „Skills for Social Progress“ (2015), S. 82

Students who spend more than six hours on line per weekday outside of school ...

„Students who spend more than six hours on line per weekday outside of school are particularly at risk of reporting that they feel lonely at school, and that they arrived late for school or skipped days of school in the two weeks prior to the PISA test.“
OECD (Hrsg.), „Students, Computers and Learning“ (2015), S. 16

In 2012, only 42 % of students in Korea reported that they use computers at school ...

„In 2012, only 42 % of students in Korea reported that they use computers at school – the second smallest proportion among the 42 countries/economies surveyed, after Shanghai-China (38 %).“
OECD (Hrsg.), „Students, Computers and Learning“ (2015), S. 55

Performance of Swedish 15-year olds in mathematics ...

„The performance of Swedish 15-year olds in mathematics, literacy and science has been steadily declining since the first OECD Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) survey in 2000.“

Jon Kristian Pareliussen u. a., „Skills and Inclusive Growth in Sweden“ (2015), S. 5

 

Sweden experienced the most rapid decline of all OECD countries ...

„Over the past decade Sweden experienced the most rapid decline of all OECD countries in the performance of 15-year olds, as measured in the PISA survey.“

Jon Kristian Pareliussen u. a., „Skills and Inclusive Growth in Sweden“ (2015), S. 8

 

Finnish teachers’ numeracy and literacy scores are higher than in any other country ...

„New research shows that Finnish teachers’ numeracy and literacy scores are higher than in any other country for which scores are available. These scores, in turn, are found to have a positive impact on pupil performance in PISA.“
Gabriel Heller Sahlgren, „Real Finnish Lessons – The true story of an education superpower“ (2015), S. 18f

The kinds of skills that are easiest to teach and test ...

„The kinds of skills that are easiest to teach and test are also easiest to automate, digitise and outsource.“

Dr. Andreas Schleicher, „Schools for 21st-Century Learners“ (2015), S. 12

 

The most successful education systems are those in countries/economies whose society values the teaching profession ...

„Evidence from PISA and TALIS suggests that the most successful education systems are those in countries/economies whose society values the teaching profession.“
Dr. Andreas Schleicher, „Schools for 21st-Century Learners“ (2015), S. 40

Swedish results in PISA have steadily declined ...

„Swedish results in PISA have steadily declined. In the 2012 survey, Sweden reached the lowest scores of all European OECD countries.“

Univ.-Prof. Dr. Marca Wolfensberger, „Talent Development in European Higher Education“ (2015), S. 244

 

School competition is not related to better mathematics performance among students ...

„The latest PISA results show that, on average across countries, school competition is not related to better mathematics performance among students.“
OECD (Hrsg.), „PISA in Focus 42“ (August 2014), S. 2

15-year-old students who had attended pre-primary education tend to perform better ...

„PISA consistently finds that 15-year-old students who had attended pre-primary education tend to perform better than those who had not attended pre-primary education, even after accounting for the students’ socio-economic status.“
OECD (Hrsg.), „PISA in Focus 40“ (Juni 2014), S. 2

Attending pre‑primary education for more than one year ...

„In 2012, an average of 67 % of disadvantaged students had attended pre‑primary education for more than one year, while 82 % of advantaged students had done so.“
OECD (Hrsg.), „PISA in Focus 40“ (Juni 2014), S. 3

When students believe that investing effort in learning will make a difference ...

„When students believe that investing effort in learning will make a difference, they score significantly higher in mathematics.“
OECD (Hrsg.), „PISA in Focus 37“ (März 2014), S. 1

Skipping school before the PISA test ...

„Across OECD countries, 18 % of students skipped at least one class and 15% skipped at least an entire day of school without authorisation in the two weeks before the PISA test. […] In most high-performing school systems, such as Hong Kong-China, Japan, Korea and Shanghai-China, virtually no student skips classes or days of school.“
OECD (Hrsg.), „PISA in Focus 35“ (Jänner 2014), S. 1f

Skipping school and mathematics performance ...

„16% of the variation in mathematics performance across OECD countries can be explained by differences in the proportions of students who skip school.“
OECD (Hrsg.), „PISA in Focus 35“ (Jänner 2014), S. 2

Where more than 10 % of students skipped a day or a class at least once in the two weeks prior to the PISA test ...

„Some 7 % of students in Japan and 9 % of students in Korea attend schools where more than 10 % of students skipped a day or a class at least once in the two weeks prior to the PISA test; by contrast, across OECD countries, an average of 73 % of students attend such schools.“

21 % der 15-jährigen Schüler in Südtirol, die an PISA 2012 teilnahmen, haben in ihrer bisherigen Schullaufbahn einmal oder mehrmals eine Klasse wiederholt ...

„21 % der 15-jährigen Schüler in Südtirol, die an PISA 2012 teilnahmen, haben in ihrer bisherigen Schullaufbahn einmal oder mehrmals eine Klasse wiederholt.“
OECD (Hrsg.), „PISA 2012 - Ergebnisse Südtirol” (2014), S. 17
Den 21,3 % Südtirols stehen 11,9 % in Österreich gegenüber.

Insgesamt ist die Korrelation zwischen PIAAC und PISA nicht hoch ...

„Insgesamt ist die Korrelation zwischen PIAAC und PISA nicht hoch, es stellt sich die Frage, woher die Unterschiede in den Werten kommen, wenn die beiden Erhebungen im Prinzip die gleichen Kompetenzen erfassen sollen.“

Statistik Austria (Hrsg.), „Schlüsselkompetenzen von Erwachsenen – Vertiefende Analysen der PIAAC-Erhebung 2001/12“ (2014), S. 72

 

Japan: A reasonable explanation for the Japanese success in PISA ...

Japan: „Out-of-school education determines higher achievement scores in international comparison in a decisive way and therefore provides a reasonable explanation for the Japanese success in PISA.“
Steve Entrich, „Effects of investments in out-of-school education in Germany and Japan“ in de Gruyter, „Contemporary Japan“, 2014, 26(1), S. 71

France is one of the countries in which the school system contributes most to widening inequalities ...

„PISA surveys show that France is one of the countries in which the school system contributes most to widening inequalities.“
EU-Kommission (Hrsg.), „Investing in children: Breaking the cycle of disadvantage. A study of national practices“ (2014), S. 72

PISA test scores are not measuring the ‚quality‘ of a country’s schooling system ...

„PISA test scores are not measuring the ‚quality‘ of a country’s schooling system per se. Rather, PISA test scores are influenced by several factors, many of which are beyond schools’ control (e.g. the willingness of parents to provide their children with extra tuition).“

Dr. John Jerrim, „Why do East Asian children perform so well in PISA?“ (2014), S. 17

 

Monitoring of student outcomes ...

„There is increasing recognition that the monitoring of student outcomes must extend beyond knowledge and skills in key subject areas and include broader learning outcomes, including students’ critical thinking skills, social competencies, engagement with learning and overall well-being.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „Improving Schools in Wales“ (2014), S. 121

 

Native-born children of immigrants who attend ECEC are a full one year ahead in reading skills at the age of 15 ...

„Native-born children of immigrants who attend ECEC (Anm.: ECEC = early childhood education and care) are a full one year ahead in reading skills at the age of 15, according to PISA data. These effects persist even after controlling for parental education, reasons for migration, and the language spoken at home.“
OECD (Hrsg.), „International Migration Outlook 2014“ (2014), S. 91f

Südkorea: Teachers spend less time teaching and more time on activities such as class preparation ...

Südkorea: „Teachers spend less time teaching and more time on activities such as class preparation than in many other OECD countries.“
OECD (Hrsg.), „Lessons from PISA for Korea“ (2014), S. 16

The only type of resource that PISA shows to be correlated with student performance is the level of teachers’ salaries relative to national income ...

„The only type of resource that PISA shows to be correlated with student performance is the level of teachers’ salaries relative to national income.“
OECD (Hrsg.), „Lessons from PISA for Korea“ (2014), S. 44

Südkorea: 80.9 % of primary school students were estimated to be receiving private supplementary education ...

„In Korea, 80.9 % of primary school students were estimated to be receiving private supplementary education in 2012. In lower secondary school the proportion was 70.6 %; and in upper secondary school it was 50.7 %.“
OECD (Hrsg.), „Lessons from PISA for Korea“ (2014), S. 89

The highest-performing educational systems recruit their teachers from the top third of each cohort of graduates ...

„The highest-performing educational systems recruit their teachers from the top third of each cohort of graduates (top 5 % in Korea, 10 % in Finland and 30 % in Singapore and Japan).“
OECD (Hrsg.), „Lessons from PISA for Korea“ (2014), S. 193

Sweden is not the only Nordic country where results declined ...

„While average performance in mathematics declined by 31 points in Sweden between 2003 and 2012 […], performance in Finland declined by 26 points, in Iceland by 22 points, and in Denmark by 14 points.“
OECD (Hrsg.), „Resources, Policies and Practices in Sweden’s Schooling System“ (2014), S. 26

Student discipline and behavioural issues ...

„One in five teachers across countries – and more than one in three in Austria, Hungary, Korea and Slovenia – indicated that he or she needs professional development to address student discipline and behavioural issues.“
Dr. Andreas Schleicher, „Equity, Excellence and Inclusiveness in Education“ (2014), S. 40

Some 13 % of 15-year-olds are reported to have repeated at least one year either in primary or secondary school ...

„Some 13 % of 15-year-olds are reported to have repeated at least one year either in primary or secondary school. This proportion is particularly high in Belgium, France, Luxembourg, Portugal and Spain, where it affects over 30 % of students.“
Dr. Andreas Schleicher, „Equity, Excellence and Inclusiveness in Education“ (2014), S. 77
In Österreich sind es 11,9 %.

The countries that achieve the highest scores in international learning assessments ...

„The countries that achieve the highest scores in international learning assessments such as PISA and TIMSS emphasize mentoring of all newly qualified teachers, supported by additional resources targeted to their schools.“
UNESCO (Hrsg.), „Teaching and learning – Achieving quality for all“ (2014), S. 244

Finland has in fact lost 22 points since 2000 ...

„Finland has in fact lost 22 points since 2000. This immense loss is only surpassed by Sweden which has lost a stunning 33 points on the PISA reading scale since 2000.“

Univ.-Prof. Dr. Ludger Wößmann, „The Economic Case for Education“ (2014), S. 24

 

Turkish students in Austria score 115 points below the OECD average ...

„Turkish students in Austria score 115 points below the OECD average.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „PISA in Focus 33“ (Oktober 2013), S. 2

115 PISA-Punkte entsprechen etwa drei Lernjahren.

 

Fewer than one in ten students in Korea and Thailand reported that they cannot work well in class because of disruptions ...

„Fewer than one in ten students in Korea and Thailand reported that they cannot work well in class because of disruptions.“
OECD (Hrsg.), „PISA in Focus 32“ (September 2013), S. 1
Im OECD-Mittel sind es 19 %, in Österreich 23 %.

Disciplinary climate shows a significant positive relationship with performance ...

„Disciplinary climate is one of few school-level characteristics that show a significant positive relationship with performance consistently across countries, even after accounting for other school features and students’ background.“
OECD (Hrsg.), „PISA in Focus 32“ (September 2013), S. 4

A disciplinary climate that is conducive to learning can weaken the impact of students’ socio-economic status on performance ...

„A disciplinary climate that is conducive to learning is not only positively related to student performance, but results from PISA suggest that it can weaken the impact of students’ socio-economic status on performance.“
OECD (Hrsg.), „PISA in Focus 32“ (September 2013), S. 4

Summative assessment culture in many parts of the world ...

„The summative assessment culture that has emerged in many parts of the world, especially in the United States, has undermined one of the most potent uses of tests; i.e., as learning tools.“

Univ.-Prof. Dr. Olusola Adesope u. a., „The neglected benefits of testing: Implications for classroom and self-directed learning“ in „The WERA Educational Journal“, August 2013, S. 22

 

Students who reported that, during their lessons, their peers don’t listen to what the teacher says ...

„Students who reported that, during their lessons, their peers don’t listen to what the teacher says, there is noise and disorder, the teacher has to wait a long time for students to quieten down, students cannot work well, and students don’t start working for a long time after the lesson begins tend to think that school is not useful for them or for their future.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „PISA in Focus 24“ (Jänner 2013), S. 2

 

PISA: In Österreich liegen die Schüler/innen mit eingewanderten Eltern im Schnitt um 67 Punkte zurück ...

PISA: „In Österreich liegen die Schüler/innen mit eingewanderten Eltern im Schnitt um 67 Punkte zurück. [...] Ähnlich stark ist der Rückstand von Kindern von Migranten/Migrantinnen in Schweden, Belgien, Finnland und Italien.“

BIFIE (Hrsg.), „Nationaler Bildungsbericht Österreich 2012“ (2013), Band 1, S. 154

67 PISA-Punkte entsprechen mehr als eineinhalb Lernjahre.

 

Sweden’s rankings have declined over the past ten years ...

„Sweden’s rankings have declined over the past ten years, and the gap between high and low achieving students has increased.“
Univ.-Prof. Dr. Nina Bascia u.a., „Teacher Union Governmental relations in the context of educational reform“ (2013), S. 15

Italy is one of the OECD countries with largest native-immigrant performance gaps in PISA 2009 ...

„Italy is one of the OECD countries with largest native-immigrant performance gaps in PISA 2009, in particular for second generation students, even after adjusting for socio-economic background.“

Univ.-Prof. Dr. Dalit Contini, „Immigrant background peer effects in Italian schools“ (2013), S. 15

 

In Shanghai schools, children are geared to an exam-oriented culture ...

„In Shanghai schools, children are geared to an exam-oriented culture and a teaching system that emphasizes memorization and rote learning. They drill a lot and learn basic facts and structures of logic from these repetitive exercises.”

Univ.-Prof. Dr. David Kamens, „Globalization and the Emergence of an Audit Culture: PISA and the search for ‘best practices’ and magic bullets“ in Meyer u. a., „PISA, Power und Policy“ (2013), S. 132

 

PISA has thrown a country to the top of the international ranking charts ...

Finnland: „PISA has thrown a country to the top of the international ranking charts that least follows the OECD’s ‘standard global reform package’ – i.e. an accountability-driven and standardized-test based model of global education.“

Univ.-Prof. Dr. Heinz-Dieter Meyer u. a., „PISA and the Globalization of Education Governance: some puzzles and problems“ in Meyer u. a., „PISA, Power und Policy“ (2013), S. 14

 

Finnland: The relative risk of students with immigrant background scoring below Level 2 was the greatest of all OECD countries in PISA 2009 ...

Finnland: „The relative risk of students with immigrant background scoring below Level 2 was the greatest of all OECD countries in PISA 2009, with native students scoring 60 points more than students with an immigrant background, after accounting for socio-economic background (compared to the OECD average of 27 points).“
OECD (Hrsg.), „Education Policy Outlook – Denmark“ (2013), S. 6

Strongest impact of socio-economic background on mathematics performance ...

„Among OECD countries, the strongest impact of socio-economic background on mathematics performance is found in Chile, France, Hungary and the Slovak Republic …“

OECD (Hrsg.), „Lessons from PISA 2012 for the United States“ (2013), S. 29

 

Teacher shortage appears to be related to poorer performance in most countries ...

„Teacher shortage appears to be related to poorer performance in most countries.“
OECD (Hrsg.), „Lessons from PISA 2012 for the United States“ (2013), S. 46

Schools whose students spend more hours on homework and other study time set by teachers tend to perform better ...

„Schools whose students spend more hours on homework or other study set by teachers tend, on average, to perform better, even after accounting for the socio-economic status and demographic background of students and schools and various other school characteristics“
OECD (Hrsg.), „Lessons from PISA 2012 for the United States“ (2013), S. 47

Policies aimed at supporting immigrant students ...

„Not understanding the language of the country of residence upon arrival is a disadvantage; but so is insufficient exposure to that language outside of school. Policies aimed at supporting immigrant students who do not speak the language of assessment at home should focus on both school and home.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „PISA 2012 Results: Excellence through Equity“ (2013), S. 80

 

Over 25 % of 15-year-old students in France, Luxembourg, Spain, Portugal, Belgium and the Netherlands reported having repeated a year during their school trajectory in primary and secondary education ...

„Over 25 % of 15-year-old students in France, Luxembourg, Spain, Portugal, Belgium and the Netherlands reported having repeated a year during their school trajectory in primary and secondary education.“
OECD (Hrsg.), „Synergies for Better Learning“ (2013), S. 210

Erfolgreiche Schulsysteme entlohnen ihre Lehrkräfte in der Regel besser ...

„Die PISA-Ergebnisse zeigen seit langem, dass erfolgreiche Schulsysteme ihre Lehrkräfte in der Regel besser entlohnen.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „PISA im Fokus 16“ (Mai 2012), S. 1

 

Die besten Studierenden für den Lehrerberuf durch höheres Gehalt sowie berufliches Ansehen ...

„Im Allgemeinen gewinnen Länder, die in PISA gut abschneiden, die besten Studierenden für den Lehrerberuf, indem sie ihnen ein höheres Gehalt sowie berufliches Ansehen bieten. […] So verdienen beispielsweise Lehrkräfte der Sekundarstufe I in Korea und der Partnervolkswirtschaft Hongkong (China), zwei leistungsstarken Systemen bei der PISA-Lesekompetenzstudie, über das Doppelte des Pro-Kopf-BIP des betreffenden Landes.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „PISA im Fokus 13“ (Februar 2012), S. 3

... und damit mehr als Doppelte der Lehrkräfte Österreichs.

 

The countries that perform well in PISA attract the best students into the teaching profession ...

„The countries that perform well in PISA attract the best students into the teaching profession by offering them higher salaries and greater professional status.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „PISA in Focus 13“ (Februar 2012), S. 3

 

Austria is the country where Turkish immigrants have the lowest HISEI (Highest International Socio-Economic Index of Occupational Status) ...

„The mean HISEI (Anm.: HISEI = Highest International Socio-Economic Index of Occupational Status) among the children of Turkish immigrants is lower than the mean HISEI for the children of native-born parents in all countries. The gap is largest in Austria, which is the country where Turkish immigrants have the lowest HISEI, and smallest in Switzerland, which is the country where the average HISEI of Turkish children is highest.“
Univ.-Prof. Dr. Christian Dustmann u. a., „Educational achievement of second-generation immigrants: an international comparison“. In: „Economic Policy“ vom Jänner 2012, S. 170f

Frankreich ist das Land der großen Diskrepanz ...

„Frankreich ist das Land der großen Diskrepanz: Während die Elite fast mit der internationalen Spitzengruppe mithalten kann, befinden sich 40 % seiner Schützlinge in den Tiefen des Rankings. Auf der einen Seite ist man auf Augenhöhe mit Finnland und Südkorea, auf der anderen nähert man sich Mexiko und der Türkei an.“

Univ.-Prof. Dr. Christian Baudelot, übersetzt von und zitiert nach Univ.-Prof. Dr. Christine Delory-Momberger, „Der Umgang mit Diversität als ein fundamentales Problem der französischen Schule“ in Schelle u. a., „Schule und Unterricht in Frankreich“ (2012), S. 18

 

In England the impact of pupils’ socio-economic background is significantly higher than the OECD average ...

„In England the impact of pupils’ socio-economic background is significantly higher than the OECD average.“
Department for Education (Hrsg.), „PISA 2009: How does the social attainment gap in England compare with countries internationally?“ (2012), S. 1

In England there are relatively few pupils from lower socio-economic backgrounds who have above average attainment ...

„In England there are relatively few pupils from lower socio-economic backgrounds who have above average attainment.“
Department for Education (Hrsg.), „PISA 2009: How does the social attainment gap in England compare with countries internationally?“ (2012), S. 5

Denmark has excluded more students than any of the other 64 participating countries ...

„Approximately 8 % of students were excluded from the Danish PISA testing due to academic, social or physical disabilities. Denmark has excluded more students than any of the other 64 participating countries.“
Univ.-Prof. Dr. Niels Egelund u.a., „Northern Lights on PISA 2009 – focus on reading“ (2012), S. 16
In Österreich wurde nicht einmal 1 % der SchülerInnen von der Testung ausgeschlossen.

Dänemark: In PISA 2009, about 8 % of all Danish students were excluded from the PISA test and survey due to language disabilities or special education needs ...

Dänemark: „In PISA 2009, about 8 % of all Danish students were excluded from the PISA test and survey due to language disabilities or special education needs. Most likely, some of these were immigrant students with poor Danish language skills.“

Univ.-Prof. Dr. Niels Egelund u.a., „Northern Lights on PISA 2009 – focus on reading“ (2012), S. 16

In Österreich, wo wesentlich mehr SchülerInnen die Unterrichtssprache nicht als Umgangssprache sprechen, wurde nicht einmal 1 % der SchülerInnen von der Testung ausgeschlossen …

 

Dänemark: No changes in reading scores from PISA 2000 to PISA 2009 have been recorded ...

Dänemark: „PIRLS 2006 showed that in fourth grade, reading performance had increased with the equivalent of one school year since 1991, but no changes in reading scores from PISA 2000 to PISA 2009 have been recorded.“
Univ.-Prof. Dr. Niels Egelund u.a., „Northern Lights on PISA 2009 – focus on reading“ (2012), S. 196

Korea, Shanghai and Hong Kong have the smallest distance between highest and lowest performing students ...

„Korea, Shanghai and Hong Kong have the smallest distance between highest and lowest performing students.“
IPPR (Hrsg.), „Oceans of Innovation“ (2012), S. 43

Many of the countries that performed best on PISA had the lowest ranking on entrepreneurship ...

„Professor Yong Zhao put countries’ rankings on PISA mathematics scores together with their perceived entrepreneurial capacity, and found a striking negative correlation. Many of the countries that performed best on PISA had the lowest ranking on entrepreneurship.“

IPPR (Hrsg.), „Oceans of Innovation“ (2012), S. 46

 

Systems prioritising higher teacher salaries over smaller classes tend to perform better ...

„The findings from PISA suggest that systems prioritising higher teacher salaries over smaller classes tend to perform better.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „Equity and Quality in Education“ (2012), S. 36

 

Comprehensive and consistent L2 support interventions are the very aspects ...

„Comprehensive and consistent L2 [Anm.: Zweitsprache] support interventions are the very aspects of schooling that distinguished those countries with the smallest gaps in performance between native and immigrant students on the PISA assessment.“
Esther Yoona Cho, „Migrants, language and education: An international perspective“. In: OECD (Hrsg.), „Languages in a Global World“ (2012), S. 341

Education is a shared responsibility ...

„Some parents believe that once their child begins formal schooling, only teachers are responsible for educating them. But education is a shared responsibility; and results from PISA show that even older students benefit when their parents are actively engaged in their education.”

OECD (Hrsg.), „Let’s Read them a Story! The Parent Factor in Education“ (2012), S. 30

 

Although PISA states that it does not test school knowledge, the PISA results are interpreted as valid measures of the quality of national schools systems ...

„Although PISA states that it does not test school knowledge, and that it does not test according to national curricula or testing school knowledge, the PISA results are interpreted, also in OECD reports, as valid measures of the quality of national schools systems.“

Univ.-Prof. Dr. Svein Sjoeberg, „PISA: Politics, fundamental problems and intriguing results“ (2012), S. 3

 

Der Leistungsvorsprung der Schülerinnen und Schüler, denen ihre Eltern in den ersten Schuljahren vorgelesen haben ...

„Der Leistungsvorsprung der Schülerinnen und Schüler, denen ihre Eltern in den ersten Schuljahren vorgelesen haben, ist unabhängig vom sozioökonomischen Hintergrund der Familien zu erkennen.“
OECD, „PISA im Fokus 10“ (November 2011), S. 1

The performance advantage among students whose parents read to them in their early school years is evident ...

„Fifteen-year-old students whose parents often read books with them during their first year of primary school show markedly higher scores in PISA 2009 than students whose parents read with them infrequently or not at all. The performance advantage among students whose parents read to them in their early school years is evident regardless of the family’s socio-economic background.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „PISA in Focus 10" (November 2011), S. 1

 

Students whose parents discuss political or social issues with them ...

„Students whose parents discuss political or social issues with them either weekly or daily score 28 points higher, on average, than those whose parents discuss these issues less often or not at all. […] When socio-economic background is taken into account, the score point advantage drops, but remains important – 16 score points.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „PISA in Focus 10“ (November 2011), S. 3

 

When parents read a book with their child ...

„The score point difference in reading that is associated with parental involvement is largest when parents read a book with their child, when they talk about things they have done during the day, and when they tell stories to their children.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „PISA in Focus 10“ (November 2011), S. 3

 

All parents can help their children achieve their full potential ...

„All parents can help their children achieve their full potential by spending some time talking and reading with their children – even, perhaps especially, when their children are very young.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „PISA in Focus 10“ (November 2011), S. 4

 

Kinder mit einem in der Türkei geborenen Vater ...

„Von den Kindern mit einem in der Türkei geborenen Vater können 56 % (14 % unter und 42 % auf Level 1) im Alter von zehn Jahren nicht sinnerfassend lesen.“

Univ.-Prof. Mag. Dr. Gudrun Biffl u. a., „Schule – Migration – Gender“ (2011), S. 25

 

Jeder vierte männliche Jugendliche Opfer direkter Gewalthandlungen ...

„Jeder vierte männliche Jugendliche war im letzten halben Jahr mindestens zweimal Opfer direkter Gewalthandlungen, jeder dritte war mindestens zweimal Täter.“

Univ.-Prof. Dr. Ferdinand Eder, „PISA 2009, Nationale Zusatzanalysen – Einzelzusammenfassungen“ (2011), S. 3

 

Ruhe und Disziplin in der Klasse ...

„Etwa 32 % (Anm.: der 15-Jährigen Österreichs) berichten, dass es von ihren Lehrpersonen ‚die meisten‘ oder ‚alle‘ oft nicht schaffen, ‚die nötige Ruhe und Disziplin in der Klasse herzustellen‘.“

Univ.-Prof. Dr. Ferdinand Eder, „PISA 2009, Nationale Zusatzanalysen – Einzelzusammenfassungen“ (2011), S. 22

 

Südtirol: Schüler und Schülerinnen in Schulen, die in allen Fächern Leistungsgruppen bilden, erzielen deutlich höhere Ergebnisse ...

„In Südtirol geben einige Schulen, mehrheitlich italienische Schulen, an, dass sie in allen Fächern Leistungsgruppen bilden. Die Schüler und Schülerinnen in diesen Schulen erzielen deutlich höhere Ergebnisse (541) als die Schüler und Schülerinnen in den Schulen, in der die Leitung angegeben hat, dass keine Leistungsgruppen oder Leistungsgruppen in einigen Fächern gebildet werden (494).“
OECD (Hrsg.), „PISA 2009 – Ergebnisse Südtirol“ (2011), S. 123

Südtirol: 23,1 % der Schüler haben irgendwann in ihrer Schulkarriere eine Klasse wiederholt ...

Südtirol: „23,1 % der Schüler haben irgendwann in ihrer Schulkarriere eine Klasse wiederholt. Im OECD-Durchschnitt sind dies 13 %.“
OECD, „PISA 2009 - Ergebnisse Südtirol“ (2011), S. 124

In der Schule in Südtirol kommt bei den 15-Jährigen eine Lehrperson auf durchschnittlich 8,24 Schülerinnen und Schüler ...

„In der Schule in Südtirol kommt bei den 15-Jährigen eine Lehrperson auf durchschnittlich 8,24 Schülerinnen und Schüler. In der deutschen Schule sind es 8,6, in der italienischen Schule sind es 6,94 Schüler und Schülerinnen. Der OECD-Durchschnitt ist fast doppelt so hoch, nämlich fast 16,12 Schüler und Schülerinnen pro Lehrperson.“
OECD (Hrsg.), „PISA 2009 - Ergebnisse Südtirol“ (2011), S. 134

Die Klassengröße bei den 15-Jährigen ist nur in der Schweiz geringer als in Südtirol ...

„Die Klassengröße bei den 15-Jährigen ist nur in der Schweiz geringer als in Südtirol (19,1 Schüler und Schülerinnen je Klasse). Im OECD-Durchschnitt sind die Klassen mit 24,6 Schülern und Schülerinnen um mehr als 5 größer als in Südtirol.“
OECD, „PISA 2009 - Ergebnisse Südtirol“ (2011), S. 135

Südtirol: Die Migrantenkinder der ersten Generation kommen gerade mal auf 415 Punkte ...

„Vergleicht man für ganz Südtirol die Leistungen der Schülerinnen und Schüler nach Migrationshintergrund, muss zunächst festgestellt werden, dass die Gruppen verhältnismäßig klein sind. [...] Während in ganz Südtirol bei den Schülerinnen und Schülern ohne Migrationshintergrund die naturwissenschaftliche Leistung 520 beträgt, kommen die Migrantenkinder der ersten Generation gerade mal auf 415 Punkte.“
OECD (Hrsg.), „PISA 2009 - Ergebnisse Südtirol“ (2011), S. 177

Österreichische Jugendliche weisen vielfältige und häufige Gewalterfahrungen auf ...

„Insgesamt zeigen die auf Selbsteinschätzungen beruhenden Ergebnisse, dass österreichische Jugendliche vielfältige und häufige Gewalterfahrungen aufweisen. Die Angaben für direkte Gewalterfahrungen fielen noch höher aus als in den beiden HBSC Studien der OECD.“

Mag. Dr. Dagmar Strohmeier, „PISA 2009, Nationale Zusatzanalysen – Einzelzusammenfassungen“ (2011), S. 26

 

The PISA test is, by design, not an evaluation of a country’s school system ...

„The PISA test is, by design, not an evaluation of a country’s school system. […] It is, instead, a reflection of a number of factors, many of them out-of-school House style on full stops.“

Univ.-Prof. Dr. David Berliner, „The Context for Interpreting PISA Results in the USA“. In: Pereyra u.a. (Hrsg.), „PISA Under Examination“ (2011), S. 83

 

With some exceptions, emigrants reproduce the PISA scores of their aboriginal counterparts wherever they go ...

„With some exceptions, emigrants reproduce the PISA scores of their aboriginal counterparts wherever they go.“

Univ.-Prof. Dr. Julio Carabana, „Why do the Results of Immigrant Students depend so much on their Country of Origin and so little on their Country of Destination?“. In: Pereyra u.a. (Hrsg.), „PISA Under Examination“ (2011), S. 212

 

The family language seems to be an important determinant of immigrant students’ disadvantage in achievement ...

„The family language seems to be an important determinant of immigrant students’ disadvantage in achievement.”
Aileen Edele u.a., „PISA’s Potential for Analyses of Immigrant Students’ Educational Success“. In: Pereyra u.a. (Hrsg.), „PISA Under Examination“ (2011), S. 195

Norwegen: Teacher's role reduced to facilitator ...

„Analysis of declining Norwegian results in the international surveys revealed that students were sometimes left alone to construct their knowledge from a multitude of experience and the teacher's role was being reduced to facilitator.“

EU-Kommission (Hrsg.), „Mathematics Education in Europe“ (2011), S. 23

 

Schweden: The impact of socio-economic background on reading performance has markedly increased ...

Schweden: „The impact of socio-economic background on reading performance has markedly increased and is now above the OECD average.“
OECD (Hrsg.), „Reviews of Evaluation and Assessment in Education – Sweden“ (2011), S. 25

Canadian students are more likely than any other children in the world to read daily for pleasure ...

„Comparative PISA data on the leisure reading habits of Canadian students suggest that Canadian students are more likely than any other children in the world to read daily for pleasure.“
OECD (Hrsg.), „Strong Performers and Successful Reformers in Education – Lessons from PISA for the United States“ (2011), S. 68

Mathematikleistung am Ende der Grundschulzeit vorhersagbar ...

„Internationale Studien zeigten, dass sich ein erheblicher Teil der Mathematikleistung am Ende der Grundschulzeit anhand der Zahlenfertigkeit des letzten Kindergartenjahres vorhersagen lasse.“

Univ.-Prof. Dr. Heinz-Elmar Tenorth, Bildungswissenschaftler an der Humboldt-Universität Berlin, Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung vom 24. September 2010

 

Parents of foreign-born students in Australia, Canada and New Zealand have similar (or even higher) levels of educational attainment ...

Data from PISA show that parents of foreign-born students in Australia, Canada and New Zealand have similar (or even higher) levels of educational attainment compared to parents of native students.“

Univ.-Prof. Dr. Jaap Dronkers, „Quality and Inequality of Education: Cross-National Perspectives“ (2010), S. 115

 

Pupils aged 15 in Denmark are exposed to 4 hours of instruction per week ...

„Pupils aged 15 in Denmark are exposed to 4 hours of instruction per week in math and 4.7 in language, while pupils of the same age in Austria have only 2.7 hours of weekly classroom lessons in math and 2.4 in language.“

Univ.-Prof. Dr. Victor Lavy, „Do Differences in School's Instruction Time Explain International Achievement Gaps in Maths, Science and Language?“ (2010), S. 1

 

Overall, total weekly hours of instruction in math, language and science ...

„Overall, total weekly hours of instruction in math, language and science is 55 percent higher in Denmark (11.5 hours) than in Austria (7.4 hours).“

Univ.-Prof. Dr. Victor Lavy, „Do Differences in School's Instruction Time Explain International Achievement Gaps in Maths, Science and Language?“ (2010), S. 1