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Entstehung neuer Bildungskonzerne ...

„Weitgehend unbemerkt von der mehrheitlich staatlichen Schullandschaft in Europa entstehen in den Emerging-Markets neue Bildungskonzerne. Laut einer Untersuchung der brasilianischen Bank Itaú BBA gehören die Schulkonzerne GEMS aus Dubai, Cognita aus Grossbritannien, Inspired aus Australien und Nord Anglia Education aus Hongkong zu den Unternehmen weltweit mit dem höchsten Wachstumspotenzial – neben den brasilianischen Kroton und Grupo SEB (Sistema Educacional Brasileiro).“

Neue Zürcher Zeitung online am 24. Mai 2018

 

Südkorea: Englisch im Kindergarten ...

„Koreanische Eltern zahlen bis zu 20 Millionen Won pro Jahr, umgerechnet 15 000 Euro, für einen solchen Kindergartenplatz. Drei- bis viermal mehr als für eine Vorschule, in der nur Koreanisch gesprochen wird. Schon seit 1995 gibt es in Korea Kindergarten-Versionen bekannter Englisch-Sprachtests.“

Süddeutsche Zeitung online am 23. Jänner 2018

 

Nachhilfe in Südkorea Milliardengeschäft ...

„Koreas Haushalte geben mehr als zehn Prozent ihres Budgets oder zusammen jährlich etwa 19 Billionen Won, 14,5 Milliarden Euro, für die Hagwon aus, einen großen Teil davon für Englischunterricht.“

Süddeutsche Zeitung online am 23. Jänner 2018

 

In Korea sind 80 Prozent der Bildungsteilnehmer im Tertiärbereich an privaten Bildungseinrichtungen eingeschrieben ...

„In Korea […] sind 80 Prozent der Bildungsteilnehmer im Tertiärbereich an privaten Bildungseinrichtungen eingeschrieben, und mehr als 42 Prozent des Bildungshaushalts stammen aus Bildungsgebühren.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „Bildung auf einen Blick 2017“ (2017), S. 238

 

Bildungsgebühren fur einen Bachelor- oder gleichwertigen Bildungsgang in privaten und öffentlichen Bildungseinrichtungen ...

„In Australien, Japan und Korea betragen die Bildungsgebühren fur einen Bachelor- oder gleichwertigen Bildungsgang in privaten Bildungseinrichtungen mehr als 8.000 US-Dollar gegenüber 4.500 US-Dollar bis 5.300 US-Dollar in öffentlichen Bildungseinrichtungen. In den Vereinigten Staaten verlangen unabhängige private Bildungseinrichtungen für Bachelor- oder gleichwertige Bildungsgänge mit durchschnittlichen jährlichen Bildungsgebühren von fast 21.200 US-Dollar mehr als das Zweieinhalbfache der durchschnittlichen jährlichen Bildungsgebühren an öffentlichen Bildungseinrichtungen (rund 8.200 US-Dollar).“

OECD (Hrsg.), „Bildung auf einen Blick 2017“ (2017), S. 261f

 

Nachhilfe in Europa im Aufwind ...

„Nicht zuletzt durch den Privatisierungsschub im Bildungsbereich und flankiert durch Tendenzen der Internationalisierung konnte sie aus der Peripherie des Bildungswesens heraustreten und sich als „unverzichtbares“ schulaffines Angebot etablieren.“

Univ.-Prof. Dr. Klaus Birkelbach u. a., „Außerschulische Nachhilfe“ (2017), S. 40

 

Students that use vouchers to attend private schools do less well on tests ...

„On average, students that use vouchers to attend private schools do less well on tests than similar students that do not attend private schools.“

Univ.-Prof. Dr. Mark Dynarski u. a., „More findings about school vouchers and test scores, and they are still negative“. In: „Evidence Speaks Reports“, 2017, Vol. 2, # 18, Executive Summary

 

Expenditure in education needs to be increased and primarily financed by public sources ...

„When there is insufficient public spending in education and investment in education depends very much on individuals’ ability to invest according to their income or wealth. […] Expenditure in education needs to be increased and primarily financed by public sources.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „Educational Opportunity for All“ (2017), S. 45

 

Monopolstellung des multinationalen Konzerns Pearson in weiten Teilen der USA ...

„Der multinationale Konzern Pearson mit weltweit 40.000 Mitarbeiter/innen, der die Verlage Addison-Wesley und Penguin-Random-House, Zeitungen wie der Financial Times, Vergnügungsparks und Madame-Tussaud-Wachsfigurenkabinette besitzt, hat sich in weiten Teilen der USA eine Monopolstellung gesichert. Er verkauft den US-Bundesstaaten nicht nur Tests, sondern bietet auch darauf abgestimmte Lehrbücher sowie Lern- und Lehrsoftware an.“

Univ.-Prof. Mag. Dr. Franz Rauch u. a., „Auswirkungen von Schulrankings auf Unterricht, Schulorganisation und Bildungssystem“ (November 2016), S. 22

 

Keine Verbesserung der Schulqualität durch Charter Schools und Academies ...

„Die marktkonforme Öffnung der Schulen für private Angebote („Charter Schools“ in den USA, „Academies“ in England) als Konkurrenz zu den staatlichen Schulen führte zu keinen Verbesserungen der Schulqualität.“

Univ.-Prof. Mag. Dr. Franz Rauch u. a., „Auswirkungen von Schulrankings auf Unterricht, Schulorganisation und Bildungssystem“ (November 2016), S. 17

 

Leistungsdifferenzierung nach Wohnort ...

„Ability stratification based on geography is common in the United States, and public/private school divisions remain relatively common in Australia and Great Britain.“

Dr. Philip Parker u. a., „A Multination Study of Socioeconomic Inequality in Expectations for Progression to Higher Education“. In: „American Educational Research Journal“, February 2016, Vol. 53, No. 1, S. 24

 

Schweden: A school appears more attractive if students perceive that it is easier to make better grades on teacher-grades tests ...

„In Sweden, a country in which education vouchers have been readily available since the early 1990s, it appears that an important means for private schools to attract voucher students involves grade inflation. That is, a school appears more attractive if students perceive that it is easier to make better grades on teacher-grades tests.“

Mercedes Schneider, „School Choice. The End of Public Education?“ (2016), S. 35

 

Schweden: Vouchersystem findet keine Akzeptanz ...

„Even though vouchers to attend private schools are readily available to all Swedish students, as of 2014, only 14 % of Swedish parents of 15-years-old students elected to use vouchers.“

Mercedes Schneider, „School Choice. The End of Public Education?“ (2016), S. 36

 

Frei finanzierte Privatschulen ...

„In Japan, Lebanon, Peru, Qatar, Chinese Taipei and the United Arab Emirates, at least one in four students are enrolled in government-independent private schools.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „PISA 2015 Results (Volume II): Policies and Practices for Successful Schools (2016), S. 124

 

Parents in more advantaged class positions ...

Parents in more advantaged class positions will respond to any expansion or reform of the educational system by using their own superior resources – economic, cultural and social – to whatever extent it takes to help their children retain a competitive edge in the system and in turn in the labour market.

Univ.-Prof. Dr. John Goldthorpe, The Guardian online am 12. März 2016

 

Estland, Europas PISA-2015-Sieger ...

Estland, Europas PISA-2015-Sieger: „Privately-run schools receive public funding on the same terms as public schools and can also charge tuition fees. They can also return profits to owners. The decision to provide private schools with public funds is designed to increase the amount of school choice in the education system.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „OECD Reviews of School Resources – Estonia“ (2016), S. 120

 

Educational backgrounds of the UK professional elite ...

England: „In medicine, nearly two thirds (61 %) of top doctors were educated at independent schools, nearly one quarter at grammar schools (22 %) and the remainder (16 %) comprehensives. […] In journalism, about half (51 %) of the country’s leading journalists were educated privately, less than one in five (19 %) went to comprehensives.“

Sutton Trust (Hrsg.), „Leading People 2016 - The educational backgrounds of the UK professional elite“ (2016), S. 2

 

Leading people in England ...

England: „Over the last twenty-five years, 19 winners of the Nobel Prize have been born in the UK. Of those educated in the UK, 44 % attended independent schools, 50 % grammar schools and just over 6% went to comprehensives.“

Sutton Trust (Hrsg.), „Leading People 2016 - The educational backgrounds of the UK professional elite“ (2016), S. 41

 

Half of the expenditure on tertiary education from private sources...

„In Australia, Chile, Japan, Korea and the United States, over half of the expenditure on tertiary education comes from private sources, accounting for at least 1 % of GDP.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „Education at a Glance 2016“ (2016), S. 199

 

In Korea, for example, 80 % of students are enrolled in private institutions ...

„In Korea, for example, 80 % of students are enrolled in private institutions, and more than 40 % of the education budget come from tuition fees.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „Education at a Glance 2016“ (2016), S. 213

 

The average annual tuition fee charged by independent private institutions ...

„In the United States, the average annual tuition fee charged by independent private institutions for bachelor’s or equivalent level is USD 21 189, more than two-and-a-half times the average annual tuition fee in public institutions (USD 8 202). In Japan and Korea, the average annual tuition fee at this level of education is above USD 8 000 in private institutions, while it is closer to USD 5 000 for public institutions.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „Education at a Glance 2016“ (2016), S. 236

 

Modi der Segregation in Gesamtschulsystemen ...

„Alle Gesamtschulsysteme haben andere Modi der Segregation entwickelt. Der einfachste und banalste, der übrigens im Moment massiv im Vormarsch ist – da gibt es eine wunderbare 16-Cities-Studie, die sechzehn Großstädte in mehreren Ländern vergleicht –, ist Trägerschaft: öffentlich, privat, frei.“

Univ.-Prof. Dr. Stefan Hopmann, „Bildungsreform 2015 – Fortschritt oder Rückschritt?“, Keynote beim „Weis[s]en Salon“ vom 10. Dezember 2015

 

Spanish households responded to immigration by increasing their educational expenditures ...

„Spanish households responded to immigration by increasing their educational expenditures. This result was mainly driven by an important native flight from tuition-free schools toward private ones.“

Univ.-Prof. Dr. Lídia Farré u. a., „Immigration and School Choices in the Midst of the Great Recession“ (2015), Abstract

 

Südkorea: The share of GDP devoted to educational institutions is among the highest in OECD countries ...

Südkorea: „The share of GDP devoted to educational institutions (for all education levels combined) is among the highest in OECD countries, with one of the highest shares of private funding among OECD countries, mainly as a result of contributions of households.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „Education Policy Outlook 2015 – Making Reforms Happen“ (2015), S. 256f

 

Japan: In 2012 the private preparatory school market in Japan was valued at $9.2 billion ...

Japan: „Yano Research Institute, based in Tokyo, estimated that during the 2012 fiscal year, the private preparatory school market in Japan was valued at $9.2 billion, with private instruction growing in particular.“

New York Times online am 10. August 2014

 

Kanada: About 42.6 % of expenditure for tertiary education in 2010 comes from private sources ...

Kanada: „About 42.6 % of expenditure for tertiary education in 2010 comes from private sources (compared to the OECD average of 30.8 %), including 20 % from household expenditures (such as tuition fees).“

OECD (Hrsg.), „Education Policy Outlook. Canada“ (2015), S. 16

Zum Vergleich: In Österreich stammten im Jahr 2010 nur 12,2 % der Ausgaben für das tertiäre Bildungswesen aus „private sources“ und nur 2,6 % aus „household expenditures“. (Quelle: OECD (Hrsg.), „Education at a Glance 2013“ (2013), Table B3.2b)

 

Englands Erfahrung mit der Privatisierung von Schulen („academies“) ...

England: „The gap between more disadvantaged pupils and others had grown wider on average in academies than in comparable maintained schools.“

Sutton Trust (Hrsg.), „The impact of academy chains on low-income students“ (2015), S. 8

 

Households pay for more than half of the tertiary costs ...

„Households pay for more than half of the tertiary costs in the Republic of Korea, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, the United States of America and Japan.“

UNICEF (Hrsg.), „The Investment Case for Education and Equity“ (2015), S. 37

 

Tuition fees for public institutions ...

„Tuition fees for public institutions are higher than USD 2 000 in more than half of the countries with available data, and they exceed USD 4 000 in Australia, Canada, Korea and New Zealand, USD 5 000 in Japan, and USD 8 000 in the United Kingdom (for government-dependent private institutions in England only) and the United States.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „Education at a Glance 2015: OECD Indicators“ (2015), S. 264

 

Only students from elite schools or with a Doctorate stand a very good chance ...

Frankreich: „Only students from elite schools or with a Doctorate stand a very good chance at getting top level jobs.“

Univ.-Prof. Dr. Marie Duru-Bellat, „Access to Higher Education: the French case“ (2015), S. 36

 

84 % had attended an elite school in France ...

Frankreich: „A recent study shows that among the about 546 top executives belonging to the 40 largest companies, 84 % had attended an elite school, and 46 % were coming from 3 of them.“

Univ.-Prof. Dr. Marie Duru-Bellat, „Access to Higher Education: the French case“ (2015), S. 41

 

The share of private funds exceeds 20 % in Canada ...

„Comparing expenditure on primary to tertiary levels of education combined, the share of private funds exceeds 20 % in Canada, Israel, Portugal and the United Kingdom, 25 % in Australia, Japan and New Zealand, 30 % in Colombia, Korea and the United States, and reaches nearly 40 % in Chile.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „Education at a Glance 2015: OECD Indicators“ (2015), S. 240

In Österreich sind es erst 4 %. (ibidem, S. 248)

 

Japan: The share of private expenditure on tertiary educational institutions is 66 % ...

Japan: „The share of private expenditure on tertiary educational institutions is 66 %, more than twice the OECD average of 30 %.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „Education Policy Outlook. Japan“ (2015), S. 16

 

More than 50 % of the costs of tertiary education are borne by households ...

„More than 50 % of the costs of tertiary education are borne by households or other private sources in several OECD countries, including Chile, Korea, the United Kingdom, Japan and the United States.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „Government at a Glance 2015“ (2015), S. 174

 

Charter schools no better or worse than traditional public schools ...

USA: „More than 80 % of charter schools are either no better or worse than traditional public schools at securing math and reading gains for their students.“

Univ.-Prof. Dr. David Berliner, „50 Myths and Lies That Threaten America's Public Schools“ (2014), S. 23f

 

Private funding for all levels of education more than doubled in the UK ...

„Private funding for all levels of education more than doubled in the United Kingdom – and nearly tripled for tertiary education – between 2000 and 2011.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „Education at a Glance 2014 – Country Note United Kingdom“ (2014), S. 5

 

The number of students in private schools in Sweden increased sharply ...

„The number of students in private schools in Sweden increased sharply over the past decade.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „Resources, Policies and Practices in Sweden’s Schooling System“ (2014), S. 14

 

Australien: Around 40 % of secondary school students attend private schools ...

Australien: „Around 40 % of secondary school students attend private schools which enrol, on average, a higher proportion of students from the upper end of the socio-economic distribution.“

Dr. Jenny Chesters u.a., „Understanding the persistence of inequality in higher education: evidence from Australia“. In: „Journal of Education Policy“, 28:2 (2013), S. 210

 

Private schools are allowed to select ...

Niederlande: „Private schools are allowed to select on the basis of religion or educational philosophy and some non-religious private schools ask significantly higher ‘voluntary’ fees.“

Univ.-Prof. Dr. Henry Levin u. a., Does educational privatisation promote social justice?“ in „Oxford Review of Education“, 2013, Vol. 39, No. 4, S. 523

 

Top-Performer aus selektiven Privatschulen ...

„Top performers in science at age 15 tend to be in schools where others are also high performers and from relatively advantaged socio-economic backgrounds. Many such schools select students according to their academic record and many of them are private.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „Education Today 2013“ (2013), S. 106

 

Private expenditure for primary and lower secondary education in Korea ...

„Private expenditure for primary and lower secondary education in Korea accounts for 21.5 % of the total investment, one of the highest proportions among OECD countries.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „Lessons from PISA for Korea“ (2014), S. 190

In Österreich macht dieser privat finanzierte Anteil 4,5 % aus. (Quelle: OECD (Hrsg.), „Education at a Glance 2013“ (2013), S. 206)

 

As standardised student assessment becomes a more profitable industry ...

„As standardised student assessment becomes a more profitable industry, companies have strong incentives to lobby for the expansion of student standardised assessment as an educational policy therefore influencing the activities within the evaluation and assessment framework.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „Synergies for Better Learning“ (2013), S. 51

 

In Schweden findet eine Massenabwanderung ins Privatschulwesen statt ...

„At the compulsory level, the proportion of students attending independent schools has grown from about 0.9 % to 10 % between 1990 and 2008. At the upper secondary level, the share has increased from 1.5 % to 20 % during the same period.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „Reviews of Evaluation and Assessment in Education – Sweden“ (2011), S. 27

 

England: 7 % of the British children aged between 4 and 18 years attend independent schools ...

England: „7 % of the British children aged between 4 and 18 years attend independent schools […] There is fierce competition for admission, as for many parents it is important to send their children to an independent school, and they are willing to pay even a high price.“

Dr. Judit Pásku u. a., „Talent Development Traditions and New Endeavours in Great Britain in the 21st Century“. In: Győri, „International horizons of talent support. Best practices within and without the European Union“ (2011), S. 101

 

Family education expenditure in China ...

China: „Since the 1990s, family education expenditure increases at an average rate of 29.3 percent every year which is faster than the increase of family income, higher than the increases of other consumption expenditure and also higher than the growth of China’s GDP.“

Dr. Wei Li u. a., „An Analysis on Social and Cultural Background of the Resistance for China’s Education Reform and Academic Pressure“ in „International Education Studies“, Vol. 3, No 3; August 2010, S. 213f

 

Gerade in Ländern mit staatlichen Gesamtschulen präferieren viele Eltern ‚elitäre‘ Privatschulen ...

„Gerade in Ländern mit staatlichen Gesamtschulen präferieren viele Eltern ‚elitäre‘ Privatschulen, wobei die Differenzierung bzw. Schullaufbahnentscheidung oft schon viel früher als in Deutschland getroffen werden muss.“

Univ.-Prof. Dr. Kurt Heller, Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung vom 21. Jänner 2010

 

The private school sector plays a prominent role in British society ...

„The private school sector plays a prominent role in British society. […] Earnings and education differentials have risen significantly over time for privately educated versus state educated individuals.“

Univ.-Prof. Dr. Francis Green u. a., „The changing economic advantage from private schools“ (2010), S. 15