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A country’s performance in PISA is unrelated to the use of standardised testing ...

„A country’s performance in PISA is […] unrelated to the use of standardised testing. Among countries and economies that perform near the top in science, the use of mandatory standardised tests is widespread in Beijing-Shanghai-Jiangsu-Guangdong (China), Singapore and the United Kingdom, but relatively uncommon in Germany, Korea and Switzerland.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „„PISA in Focus“, Nr. 79, Dezember 2017, S. 4

 

Mehr als 27.000 Lehrer, die seit 2011 ausgebildet wurden, haben den Job wieder aufgegeben ...

„Alleine im letzten Jahr haben in England mehr als 27.000 Lehrer, die seit 2011 ausgebildet wurden, den Job wieder aufgegeben. Fast ein Viertel der Lehrer hänge den Job innerhalb von fünf Jahren an den Nagel, berichtet der ‚Guardian‘. Von den 117.000 Lehrern, die in den Jahren 2011 bis 2015 ausgebildet wurden, haben 23 Prozent ihren Beruf bereits wieder aufgegeben.“

Der Standard online am 13. Juli 2017

 

Großbritannien, 1993-2015 ...

Foreign-born men and women showed higher educational attainment than their UK-born counterparts during this period, with the educational attainment gap rising over time. […] In 2015, nearly one in two recent migrants was in the highest educational category compared to one in four UK-born workers.“

http://www.migrationobservatory.ox.ac.uk am 23. März 2017

 

Investitionen in Bildung im Jahr 2013 ...

Das Vereinigte Königreich tätigte mit 6,7% die höchsten Bildungsausgaben in % des Bruttoinlandsprodukts im internationalen Vergleich.

Statistik Austria (Hrsg.), Bildung in Zahlen 2015/16 Schlüsselindikatoren und Analysen (2017), S. 92

Österreichs Politik war die Bildung nur 5,0 % des BIP wert.

 

The UK's tertiary educational system presents a strong draw for foreign talent ...

„The United Kingdom […] attracts an impressive 12.6% of the worldwide market share of international tertiary-level students, second only to the United States (16.4%). The UK’s share of the global market has grown more than any other country since 2000, suggesting its tertiary educational system presents a strong draw for foreign talent.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „Getting Skills Right: United Kingdom“ (2017), S. 16

 

Chile, Frankreich, Polen, die Türkei und Großbritannien ...

„These countries show exceptionally large gaps between the socio-economically advantaged and disadvantaged groups. This suggests that disadvantaged children from these countries are less likely to obtain the skills necessary for today’s technology-rich and versatile labour markets and improve their socio-economic status.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „Educational Opportunity for All“ (2017), S. 18

 

The score-point difference in numeracy between those who have highly educated parents and those who do not among 20-29 year-old adults ...

„The score-point difference in numeracy between those who have highly educated parents and those who do not among 20-29 year-old adults is largest in Chile, England (United Kingdom) and Israel. In addition, 80 % of 20-29 year-olds with poorly educated parents in the Slovak Republic, 65 % in England (United Kingdom) and 61 % in Israel scored below the baseline (Level 2) numeracy proficiency in the Survey of Adult Skills.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „Educational Opportunity for All“ (2017), S. 37

 

Großbritanniens selektive Migrationspolitik ...

„Flows of labour into and out of the United Kingdom through migration have an important impact on the supply of skills. Sustained inflows of well-educated immigrants have boosted the skills and size of the working-age population in the United Kingdom over the last 20 years, and the share of the working-age population born outside of the UK is now double the 1995 level and on par with other OECD countries. […] Over the last few years, the goal of UK immigration policy has been to encourage immigration of skilled migrants while reducing overall immigration. As a result of this selective migration, immigrants to the United Kingdom are younger and more educated than their UK-born counterparts, and this educational attainment gap has risen over time.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „Getting Skills Right: United Kingdom“ (2017), S. 16

 

Basic skills of young adults are strongly related to parental education in England ...

„Basic skills of young adults are […] strongly related to parental education in England, much more so than in other OECD countries. Young people born into households where neither parent attained at least upper secondary education face inherent disadvantages in accessing quality education and labour market opportunities.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „Getting Skills Right: United Kingdom“ (2017), S. 23

 

Many young adult Britons have low levels of literacy and numeracy ...

Großbritannien: „Many young adult Britons have low levels of literacy and numeracy. Based on the OECD Survey of Adult Skills (PIAAC), young adults (16-24 year-olds) in England and Northern Ireland have lower literacy and numeracy skills than their peers in almost all other participant countries. Even among university students, about one in ten have low numeracy or literacy levels […] England is also among a minority of countries where young people perform worse on literacy and numeracy than either prime-aged adults (25-54) or seniors (55-65). This decline in test scores from generation to generation could suggest deterioration in the quality of schooling over time.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „Getting Skills Right: United Kingdom“ (2017), S. 23

 

An acute challenge facing the English education system ...

„Low basic skills among adults remains an acute challenge facing the English education system. One third of the potential entrant pool to university (age 16-19) has low basic skills, higher than almost all other countries surveyed by PIAAC. Early intervention is needed to improve basic skills during compulsory education, since later remediation is more challenging.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „Getting Skills Right: United Kingdom“ (2017), S. 69

 

Pupils respecting teachers ...

„When asked whether pupils respect teachers, just over 40 per cent of respondents either ‘tended to disagree or strongly disagreed’ in the UK. In comparison, only around 15 per cent and 5 per cent of respondents in China and Singapore respectively said pupils did not respect teachers.“

Migration Advisory Committee (Hrsg.), „Partial review of the Shortage Occupation List“ (2017), S. 45

 

Global Teacher Status Index ...

„Where teacher pay is higher relative to other occupations (such as in Finland and Singapore), recruitment is higher of more highly educated teachers.“

Migration Advisory Committee (Hrsg.), „Partial review of the Shortage Occupation List“ (2017), S. 45

 

Großbritannien: Maths graduates can earn more in occupations other than teaching ...

Großbritannien: „The data shows that teachers with a maths degree tend to earn around £4,500 less per year than those maths graduates who choose an alternative profession. This indicates that maths graduates may be more inclined to choose an alternative career to seek higher pay rewards. […] It is apparent that maths graduates can earn more in occupations other than teaching. Therefore, there appears to be both evidence of and a rationale for a shortage of maths teachers.“

Migration Advisory Committee (Hrsg.), „Partial review of the Shortage Occupation List“ (2017), S. 115

 

Großbritannien: Median pay for a computer science graduate working in teaching ...

Großbritannien: „The data show the median pay for a computer science graduate working in teaching is around £13,300 less than for alternative occupations.“

Migration Advisory Committee (Hrsg.), „Partial review of the Shortage Occupation List“ (2017), S. 117

 

Großbritannien: Difficult to attract computer science graduates into teaching ...

Großbritannien: „Schools may find it increasingly difficult to attract computer science graduates into teaching given the demand for these graduates in occupations that can make them a better offer.“

Migration Advisory Committee (Hrsg.), „Partial review of the Shortage Occupation List“ (2017), S. 141

 

Großbritannien: Many education professionals report high levels of work stress ...

Großbritannien: „Many education professionals report high levels of work stress, with nearly a third (29 %) saying that their job has made them feel stressed most or all of the time in the past few weeks. This is also much higher than among the UK workforce, where only 18 % report these levels of stress.“

YouGov (Hrsg.), „Health Survey 2017. The mental health and wellbeing of education professionals in the UK“ (2017), S. 4

 

Großbritannien: Half of the education profession (53 %) have considered leaving the education sector ...

Großbritannien: „Half of the education profession (53 %) have considered leaving the education sector over the past two years as a result of health pressures and the biggest reasons given are volume of workload and seeking a better work–life balance.“

YouGov (Hrsg.), „Health Survey 2017. The mental health and wellbeing of education professionals in the UK“ (2017), S. 5

 

Großbritannien: A third of education professionals’ work more than 51 hours a week on average ...

Großbritannien: „A third of education professionals’ work more than 51 hours a week on average.“

YouGov (Hrsg.), „Health Survey 2017. The mental health and wellbeing of education professionals in the UK“ (2017), S. 9

 

Englands Regierung setzt auf duale Bildung ...

„The government committed to increase the number of apprenticeship starts in England to 3 million by 2020, and to improve the quality of apprenticeships. […] The new Institute of Apprenticeships (introduced in April 2017) will co-ordinate employer panels to establish apprenticeship standards, approve or reject them, and quality assure some end-point assessments.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „Getting Skills Right: United Kingdom“ (2017), S. 40

 

The foreign-born population in the United Kingdom has better labour market performance than the OECD average for foreign-born populations ...

Großbritannien: „The foreign-born population in the United Kingdom has better labour market performance than the OECD average for foreign-born populations. In 2015, settled working-age migrants faced an unemployment rate of 5.9 %, compared with 5.2 % for the native-born, a gap of only 0.7 percentage points, which is low relative to the OECD average gap of 4.1 percentage points.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „Getting Skills Right: United Kingdom“ (2017), S. 16

In Österreich ist dieser Gap mit 6,1 % (10,7 % versus 4,6 %) besonders groß.

 

Beratung und Unterstützung statt harter Konsequenzen für Schulen mit schlechten Evaluationsergebnissen ...

„Während Schulen mit schlechten Evaluationsergebnissen in den USA und England harte Konsequenzen drohen, werden ihnen in den Niederlanden Beratung und Unterstützung angeboten.“

Univ.-Prof. Mag. Dr. Franz Rauch u. a., „Auswirkungen von Schulrankings auf Unterricht, Schulorganisation und Bildungssystem“ (November 2016), S. 8

 

Anpassung der pädagogischen Ausrichtung auf die Testerwartungen ...

„Die große Bedeutung standardisierter Tests als Entscheidungsgrundlage für die finanzielle und personelle Ausstattung der Schulen führte in den USA und in England nachweisbar zu einer Anpassung der pädagogischen Ausrichtung auf die Testerwartungen („teaching to the test“).“

Univ.-Prof. Mag. Dr. Franz Rauch u. a., „Auswirkungen von Schulrankings auf Unterricht, Schulorganisation und Bildungssystem“ (November 2016), S. 15

 

Auswirkungen von Schulrankings auf Unterricht ...

„Da die standardisierten Tests sich weitgehend auf die Grundfertigkeiten Lesen, Schreiben und Rechnen beschränken, haben viele Schulen in den USA und England die übrigen Lernangebote reduziert, v.a. in den Wahlfächern. In über 70 % aller US-Schuldistrikte wird Unterrichtszeit für Geschichte, Kunsterziehung, Musik oder Fremdsprachen eingespart zugunsten von mehr Mathematik und Englisch im Stundenplan.“

Univ.-Prof. Mag. Dr. Franz Rauch u. a., „Auswirkungen von Schulrankings auf Unterricht, Schulorganisation und Bildungssystem“ (November 2016), S. 15

 

Keine Verbesserung der Schulqualität durch Charter Schools und Academies ...

„Die marktkonforme Öffnung der Schulen für private Angebote („Charter Schools“ in den USA, „Academies“ in England) als Konkurrenz zu den staatlichen Schulen führte zu keinen Verbesserungen der Schulqualität.“

Univ.-Prof. Mag. Dr. Franz Rauch u. a., „Auswirkungen von Schulrankings auf Unterricht, Schulorganisation und Bildungssystem“ (November 2016), S. 17

 

Soziale Mobilität unterhalb von Argentinien ...

„Großbritannien liegt hinsichtlich der sozialen Mobilität unterhalb von südamerikanischen Ländern wie Argentinien.“

Univ.-Prof. Dr. Julian Nida-Rümelin, „Profil“ (Zeitung des dphv) vom September 2016, S. 20 

 

Neue/modifizierte duale Ausbildungssysteme ...

„Viele Länder, u. a. das Vereinigte Königreich (modern apprenticeships), Spanien (nuevo contrato de la formación y aprendizaje) und Frankreich (apprentissage nouveau), setzen auf neue/modifizierte duale Ausbildungssysteme, um den hohen Jugendarbeitslosigkeits- und Schulabbruchquoten entgegenzuwirken.“

ibw (Hrsg.), „Befragung österreichischer LehrabsolventInnen zwei Jahre nach Lehrabschluss“ (2016), S. 11

 

Young people entering the labour market ...

A situation is emerging that is quite new in modern British history. Young people entering the labour market today face far less favourable mobility prospects than did their parents – or their grandparents.

Univ.-Prof. Dr. John Goldthorpe, The Guardian online am 12. März 2016

 

In the UK and Australia house prices are more expensive in the catchment area of good schools ...

„In the UK and Australia house prices are more expensive in the catchment area of good schools.“

Dr. Philip Parker u. a., „A Multination Study of Socioeconomic Inequality in Expectations for Progression to Higher Education“. In: „American Educational Research Journal“, February 2016, Vol. 53, No. 1, S. 12

 

Ability stratification based on geography is common ...

„Ability stratification based on geography is common in the United States, and public/private school divisions remain relatively common in Australia and Great Britain.“

Dr. Philip Parker u. a., „A Multination Study of Socioeconomic Inequality in Expectations for Progression to Higher Education“. In: „American Educational Research Journal“, February 2016, Vol. 53, No. 1, S. 24

 

In Großbritannien sind SchülerInnen ohne Migrationshintergrund die Schwachstelle ...

„In the UK (a traditional destination of highly educated migrants), the lowest incidence of ESL (Anm.: ESL = Early school leaving) is found among first-generation migrants, with natives showing the worst outcomes.“

EU-Kommission (Hrsg.), „Educational outcomes and immigrant background“ (2016), S. 16

 

Education levels among migrants ...

„High-education rates among migrants are highest, even above those for natives, in countries that receive highly educated migrants — whether traditionally, such as the UK, or more recently, such as IE (Anm.: Irland) or CY (Anm.: Zypern). To a lesser extent, education levels among migrants in CZ (Anm.: Tschechien) and EE (Anm.: Estland) are also higher than among natives.“

EU-Kommission (Hrsg.), „Educational outcomes and immigrant background“ (2016), S. 27

 

Significant inequalities in the English education system ...

„National sources point to significant inequalities based on gender, ethnicity and socioeconomic background in the English education system.“

EU-Kommission (Hrsg.), „Education and Training Monitor 2016 – Country analysis“ (2016), S. 290

 

Instruction in at least one subject in an ability-grouped class ...

„In Australia, Canada, Hong Kong (China), Ireland, Israel, Malta, New Zealand, Singapore, Thailand, the United Kingdom, the United States and Viet Nam, at least three in four students receive instruction in at least one subject in an ability-grouped class.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „PISA 2015 Results (Volume II): Policies and Practices for Successful Schools (2016), S. 176

 

England: In 2015, only 20 per cent of disadvantaged pupils achieved our benchmark for secondary performance ...

England: „In 2015, only 20 per cent of disadvantaged pupils achieved our benchmark for secondary performance, compared with 45 per cent of non-disadvantaged pupils.“

Natalie Perera, Executive Director des CentreForum, „Education in England: Annual Report 2016“ (2016), S. 6

 

White British FSM (Free School Meals) boys and girls achieve the lowest grades at GCSE ...

England: „White British FSM (Free School Meals) boys achieve the lowest grades at GCSE of any main ethnic group, with just 24 % achieving 5 A*-C grades at GCSE, inc. English and maths. […] White British FSM girls are also the lowest performing main female ethnic group, with 32% achieving the same measure.“

The Sutton Trust (Hrsg.), „Class differences: Ethnicity and disadvantage“ (2016), S. 1

 

London: Sozial Schwache ohne Migrationshintergrund abgehängt ...

„Across London as a whole, 63.1 % of Bangladeshi FSM pupils achieve five good GCSEs, compared to 58.6 % of Indian and 55.5 % of Pakistani. However, the average achieved by white British FSM (Anm.: Free School Meals) pupils in London is just 32.9 % on the same measure.“

The Sutton Trust (Hrsg.), „Class differences: Ethnicity and disadvantage“ (2016), S. 5

Anm.: Das sozioökonomische Niveau des Elternhauses der zugewanderten 15-Jährigen ist in Großbritannien europaweit am höchsten.

 

The aspirations of ethnic minority families in London ...

London: „The aspirations of ethnic minority families have been cited as the explanation for the recent improvement in average grades in London, where the proportion of ethnic minority communities is high.“

The Sutton Trust (Hrsg.), „Class differences: Ethnicity and disadvantage“ (2016), S. 5

 

The UK is a rare case among the EU countries of early school leaving being less prevalent among students born outside the country ...

„The UK is a rare case among the EU countries of early school leaving being less prevalent among students born outside the country (7.6 %) than those born in the UK (11.2 %).“

EU-Kommission (Hrsg.), „Education and Training Monitor 2016 – Country analysis“ (2016), S. 289

 

The United Kingdom attracts a large share of the EU27’s educated migrants ...

„The United Kingdom attracts a large share of the EU27’s educated migrants.“

Dr. Anda David u. a., „A descriptive analysis of immigration to and emigration from the EU: Where does the EU stand within OECD?“ (2016), S. 5

 

The EU27 tend to attract low-educated migrants ...

„The EU27 tend to attract low-educated migrants, while non-Europe OECD tend to be more selective for the high-educated ones.“

Dr. Anda David u. a., „A descriptive analysis of immigration to and emigration from the EU: Where does the EU stand within OECD?“ (2016), S. 6

 

Europe tends to be more attractive for low-educated migrants ...

„The majority of low-educated migrants lives in Europe (56 %), mostly in the EU15 (47 %), highlighting the fact that Europe tends to be more attractive for low-educated migrants, whereas North America is more attractive (or selective) for high-educated ones.“

Dr. Anda David u. a., „A descriptive analysis of immigration to and emigration from the EU: Where does the EU stand within OECD?“ (2016), S. 19

 

The employment rate of migrants living in the EU27 is on average significantly lower ...

„The employment rate of migrants living in the EU27 is on average significantly lower (57.7 %) than that of migrants living in non-Europe OECD destination countries, which is on average of 68.0 %.“

Dr. Anda David u. a., „A descriptive analysis of immigration to and emigration from the EU: Where does the EU stand within OECD?“ (2016), S. 21

 

74.9 % of Indian-born living in the United States are high-educated versus 44.8 % in the EU27 ...

„The most striking difference between the Indian migrant stock in Europe and in the United States is in terms of education: 74.9 % of Indian-born living in the United States are high-educated versus 44.8 % in the EU27.“

Dr. Anda David u. a., „A descriptive analysis of immigration to and emigration from the EU: Where does the EU stand within OECD?“ (2016), S. 27

 

Moroccan migrants ...

„Moroccan migrants living in the United States are […] more educated (45.5 % are high-educated) than those living in the EU27 ([…] only 14.3% are high-educated).“

Dr. Anda David u. a., „A descriptive analysis of immigration to and emigration from the EU: Where does the EU stand within OECD?“ (2016), S. 27

 

Chinese and Indian pupils continue to outperform other groups in England ...

England: „Chinese and Indian pupils continue to outperform other groups on all measures by the end of secondary school.“

Natalie Perera, Executive Director des CentreForum, „Education in England: Annual Report 2016“ (2016), S. 7

 

Private tuition is the hidden secret of British education ...

„Private tuition is the hidden secret of British education. […] Estimates suggest that the industry is worth several billion pounds, but its lack of regulation means that it is difficult to get an accurate picture of the UK market.“

Sir Peter Lampl, Gründer der Sutton Trust Foundation, in Sutton Trust (Hrsg.), „Shadow schooling: Private tuition and social mobility in the UK“ (2016), S. 1

 

Poorer students are less likely to receive private tuition in GB ...

Großbritannien:

„Poorer students are less likely to receive private tuition. Of those aged between 11-16, 17 % of students who receive free school meals (FSM) have ever received private tuition, 26 % of students who do not receive FSM.“

Sutton Trust (Hrsg.), „Shadow schooling: Private tuition and social mobility in the UK“ (2016), S. 3

 

State-educated students in London ...

„In London, of state-educated students aged between 11-16, over 150,000 (42 %) have received private tuition at some point in their lives.“

Sutton Trust (Hrsg.), „Shadow schooling: Private tuition and social mobility in the UK“ (2016), S. 3

 

Unemployment rate of youth twice as high as adult unemployment in most countries ...

„The unemployment rate of youth (aged 15-24) is twice as high as adult unemployment (25 years+) in most countries. It is nearly 4 times as high in Italy, New Zealand, Sweden and the United Kingdom.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „Society at a Glance 2016” (2016), S. 92

 

Performance gap between the richest and the poorest in England ...

England: „The performance gap between the richest and the poorest has remained persistently large between the mid-1980s and the mid-2000s.“

Social Market Foundation (Hrsg.), „Educational inequalities in England and Wales“ (2016)

 

Migrants arriving in Canada, France and the United Kingdom ...

„Close to half of the migrants arriving in Canada, France and the United Kingdom arrive from a country sharing one of the main official languages.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „Working Together: Skills and Labour Market Integration of Immigrants and their Children in Sweden“ (2016), S. 106

 

In medicine, nearly two thirds (61 %) of top doctors were educated at independent schools ...

England: „In medicine, nearly two thirds (61 %) of top doctors were educated at independent schools, nearly one quarter at grammar schools (22 %) and the remainder (16 %) comprehensives. […] In journalism, about half (51 %) of the country’s leading journalists were educated privately, less than one in five (19 %) went to comprehensives.“

Sutton Trust (Hrsg.), „Leading People 2016 - The educational backgrounds of the UK professional elite“ (2016), S. 2

 

Educational backgrounds of UK professional elite ...

England: „Over the last twenty-five years, 19 winners of the Nobel Prize have been born in the UK. Of those educated in the UK, 44 % attended independent schools, 50 % grammar schools and just over 6% went to comprehensives.“

Sutton Trust (Hrsg.), „Leading People 2016 - The educational backgrounds of the UK professional elite“ (2016), S. 41

 

Expenditure on primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary educationas a percentage of GDP ...

„In terms of expenditure as a percentage of GDP, New Zealand, Norway, Portugal and the United Kingdom spend the most on primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary education (4.7 % of GDP or more), while in Indonesia, Latvia and the Russian Federation, expenditure on those levels accounts for less than 2.5 % of GDP.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „Education at a Glance 2016“ (2016), S. 200

Österreichs Anteil: 3,2 %

 

The Netherlands is in the 7th position among OECD countries behind Switzerland ...

„The Netherlands is in the 7th position among OECD countries behind Switzerland, the United Kingdom, the United States, Luxembourg, Ireland and Canada in terms of attracting talent. Likewise, the country appears to be in a good position to retain talent. It ranks 6th among OECD countries, behind Switzerland, the United States, Norway, Finland and the United Kingdom.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „Recruiting Immigrant Workers – The Netherlands 2016“ (2016), S. 196

 

One third of 16-19 year-olds in England having low basic skills ...

England: „At present, initial schooling results in one third of 16-19 year-olds in England having low basic skills, and these poor outcomes by international standards depend more heavily on parental background than in most comparable countries.“

OECD, „Building Skills for All: A Review of England“ (2016), S. 61

 

The unemployment rate of youth (aged 15-24) is twice as high ...

„The unemployment rate of youth (aged 15-24) is twice as high as adult unemployment (25 years+) in most countries. It is nearly 4 times as high in Italy, New Zealand, Sweden and the United Kingdom.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „Society at a Glance 2016” (2016), S. 92

 

Children from most disadvantaged backgrounds ...

England: „Children from most disadvantaged backgrounds who attained high cognitive test scores at age 7 performed worse than their lower achieving counterparts from the least disadvantaged families by age 14-16.“

UNICEF (Hrsg.), „Poverty and Children’s Cognitive Trajectories: Evidence from the United Kingdom Millennium Cohort Study“ (2016), S. 7

 

Expenditure on primary to tertiary educational institutions relative to GDP reached 6 % or more ...

„In 2013, expenditure on primary to tertiary educational institutions relative to GDP reached 6 % or more in Canada, Colombia, Costa Rica, Denmark, New Zealand, Norway, Portugal, the United Kingdom and the United States.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „Education at a Glance 2016“ (2016), S. 200

 

England has a low completion rate for upper secondary education ...

„England has a low completion rate for upper secondary education. In 2012 17 % of 20-34 year-olds in England lacked upper secondary qualifications.“

OECD, „Building Skills for All: A Review of England“ (2016), S. 40

 

Disadvantaged pupils continue to fall further behind ...

England: „We find that disadvantaged pupils continue to fall further behind their peers as they progress through school.“

Natalie Perera, Executive Director des CentreForum, „Education in England: Annual Report 2016“ (2016), S. 7 

 

In the United Kingdom […] the permanent exclusion rate in schools increased ...

„In the United Kingdom […] the permanent exclusion rate in schools increased 300 % in the three years following the implementation of league tables.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „Governing Education in a Complex World“ (2016), S. 85

 

Countries with the highest rates of course-by-course tracking ...

„Internationally, countries with the highest rates of course-by-course tracking are Anglophone countries (Australia, Canada, New Zealand, the United Kingdom and the United States) …“

OECD (Hrsg.), „Equations and Inequalities“ (2016), S. 96

 

Ability grouping is relatively widespread across OECD countries ...

„Ability grouping is relatively widespread across OECD countries, with more than 70 % of students attending schools whose principal reported that students are grouped by ability for mathematics classes. Over 95 % of students in Australia, Ireland, Israel, Kazakhstan, Malaysia, New Zealand, the Russian Federation, Singapore and the United Kingdom attend such schools.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „Equations and Inequalities“ (2016), S. 99

 

Numeracy or literacy levels below level 2 ...

„Around one in ten of all university students in England have numeracy or literacy levels below level 2.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „Building Skills for All: A Review of England“ (2016), S. 14

 

Doppelt so hohe Jugendarbeitslosigkeit ...

„Die unangenehme Wahrheit […] lautet, dass Großbritannien mit einer doppelt so hohen Akademikerquote wie Deutschland auch eine doppelt so hohe Jugendarbeitslosigkeit aufweist, bei durchaus vergleichbaren wirtschaftlichen Bedingungen.“

Univ.-Prof. Dr. Julian Nida-Rümelin in Nida-Rümelin u. a., „Auf dem Weg in eine neue deutsche Bildungskatastrophe“ (2015), S. 38

 

In Great Britain and France, many immigrants speak English/French as a second language ...

„In Great Britain and France, many immigrants speak English/French as a second language, disadvantages caused by lack of fluency hence being far less severe and having less of an impact on children’s educational performance than they would have elsewhere.“

Mag. Dr. Bernhard Riederer u. a., „Changes in the Educational Achievement of Immigrant Youth in Western Societies“ in „European Sociological Review“, 2015, Vol. 31, No. 5, S. 632

 

Setting or regrouping is used frequently ...

„Setting or regrouping is used frequently in some countries such as the United Kingdom and Australia. This is mostly true in the upper primary school grades. For instance, almost 40 percent of grade 5 and 6 teachers in the United Kingdom use setting for mathematics instruction.“

Dr. Marjolein Deunk u. a., „Differentiation within and across classrooms“ (2015), S. 26

 

Students in secondary education are generally assigned to educational tracks ...

„Students in secondary education are generally assigned to educational tracks or grouped for specific subjects, mostly language and math (setting). Tracking and setting are based on student’s cognitive abilities, leading to homogeneous classes or courses.“

Dr. Marjolein Deunk u. a., „Differentiation within and across classrooms“ (2015), S. 38

 

In the United States or the United Kingdom, tracking is mainly practiced ...

„In the United States or the United Kingdom, tracking is mainly practiced as grouping of students at the class or course level, while students stay in the same school.“

Prof. Dr. Florian Klapproth, „Do Algorithms Homogenize Students’ Achievements in Secondary School Better Than Teachers’ Tracking Decisions?“ in „Educatrion Policy Analysis Archives“, 23(62), 2015, S. 3

 

In the UK not in education, employment or training ...

„In the UK, there are nearly a million 16–24-year-olds who are recorded as being not in education, employment or training (NEET).“

Univ.-Prof. Dr. Sue Maguire, „NEET, unemployed, inactive or unknown – why does it matter?“ in „Educational Research“, 2015, Vol. 57, No. 2, 121

 

Educational outcomes remain closely correlated with social class ...

England: „Children from low socio-economic groups are already behind their more advantaged counterparts when they begin school. But far from narrowing this gap, the gap widens through school. Educational outcomes remain closely correlated with social class.“

Sutton Trust (Hrsg.), „The impact of academy chains on low-income students“ (2015), S. 7

 

England: Problem of underachievement worsens in the final years of lower secondary education ...

„England’s average position in the PISA 2012 study compared to above average performance in the IEA’s Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) and Progress in International Reading Literacy Study (PIRLS) of fourth and eighth graders (years 5 and 9 in the UK), indicates that the problem of underachievement worsens in the final years of lower secondary education.“

EU-Kommission (Hrsg.), „Education and Training Monitor 2015 - Country analysis“ (2015), S. 274

 

The growing struggle to recruit means that nearly half of schools now use recruitment agencies ...

England: „The growing struggle to recruit means that nearly half of schools now use recruitment agencies to recruit their permanent roles, and 69 % of those said that they do so as they have failed to recruit previously. This is adding to schools’ recruitment costs which average £3,000 per vacancy but can run up to £10,000.“

NAHT (Hrsg.), „The NAHT recruitment survey 2015“ (2015), S. 5

 

Englands Erfahrung mit der Privatisierung von Schulen („academies“) ...

„The gap between more disadvantaged pupils and others had grown wider on average in academies than in comparable maintained schools.“

Sutton Trust (Hrsg.), „The impact of academy chains on low-income students“ (2015), S. 8

 

Large difference in the performance of lowest and highest achievers ...

„In all three subjects, England has a relatively large difference in the performance of lowest and highest achievers; this difference is greater than the OECD average. From 2009 to 2012, the gap between low and high achievers increased in all three subjects.“

Gabriela Moriconi u. a., „Supporting teachers and schools to promote positive student behaviour in England and Ontario (Canada)“ (2015), S. 46

 

Supportpersonal an Englands Schulen ...

Supportpersonal an Englands Schulen: „Their tasks usually include, for example, preparing material and equipment for lessons and working with small groups of students or individual students that need extra support due to instructional or behavioural challenges, which may happen in or out of a class. Their tasks can also include work with children with special educational needs. Teachers often may count with more than one teaching assistant in the classroom.“

Gabriela Moriconi u. a., „Supporting teachers and schools to promote positive student behaviour in England and Ontario (Canada)“ (2015), S. 37

 

United Kingdom and the United States have the highest average ratio of support staff ...

„The United Kingdom and the United States have the highest average ratio of support staff, with 15.5 teacher aides and teaching/research assistants per 1 000 students. These two countries have experienced significant increases of learning support staff in recent years.“

Francesc Masdeu Navarro, „Learning support staff: A literature review“ (2015), S. 8

 

Number of support staff in schools more than doubled in the United Kingdom ...

„The number of support staff in schools more than doubled in the United Kingdom in ten years, from 134 000 in 1997 to 346 000 in 2009, with teaching assistants representing 52 % of this group.“

Francesc Masdeu Navarro, „Learning support staff: A literature review“ (2015), S. 8

 

Social mobility in the UK relatively low ...

„Social mobility in the UK is relatively low by international standards and has not increased over the past 40 years …“

Dr. Abigail McKnight, „Downward mobility, opportunity hoarding and the ‚glass floor‘“ (2015), S. 2

 

Poor rate of social mobility a systemic problem in the UK ...

„It is important to underline that a poor rate of social mobility is a systemic problem in the UK, which originates in unequal opportunities for children according to social background from birth.“

Dr. Louise Ashley u. a., „A qualitative evaluation of non-educational barriers to the elite professions“ (2015), S. 26

 

Greater likelihood of being a higher earner ...

England: „Attending a Grammar or a private secondary school is associated with a greater likelihood of being a higher earner at age 42 relative to those who attend a comprehensive secondary school.“

Dr. Abigail McKnight, „Downward mobility, opportunity hoarding and the ‚glass floor‘“ (2015), S. 25

 

In the United Kingdom over 94 % of 15-year-olds grouped by ability ...

„In the United Kingdom over 94 % of 15-year-olds are in schools where school principals reported that students are grouped by ability within their Mathematics classes for all or some classes.“

EU-Kommission (Hrsg.), „Teaching Practices in Primary and Secondary Schools in Europe“ (2015), S. 76

 

Grammar school a clear advantage for children ...

England: „We find a clear advantage for children who attend a Grammar or a private secondary school.“

Dr. Abigail McKnight, „Downward mobility, opportunity hoarding and the ‚glass floor‘“ (2015), S. 40

 

The most able students ...

Großbritannien: „In June 2013, Ofsted published ‚The most able students: are they doing as well as they should in our non-selective secondary schools?‘ The report made it clear that many of our most able students who attend non-selective secondary schools fail to achieve their potential compared with students who attend selective and independent schools.“

Ofsted (Hrsg.), „The most able students“ (2015), S. 4

 

Most able students are still being let down ...

Großbritannien: „National data show that too many of the most able students are still being let down and are failing to reach their full potential.“

Ofsted (Hrsg.), „The most able students“ (2015), S. 7

 

Selective immigration policies and student performance ...

„Immigrant students tend to perform at high levels in countries with very selective immigration policies.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „Immigrant Students at School“ (2015), S. 30

 

Bilingual assistants to support the specific language needs ...

„Countries such as Australia, Finland and the United Kingdom use bilingual assistants (also referred to as 'minority ethnic pupil support staff' or 'ethnic assistants') to support the specific language needs of bilingual students and students whose first language is not the language of instruction, as a way of including migrant students and those from ethnic minorities.“

Francesc Masdeu Navarro, „Learning support staff: A literature review“ (2015), S. 17

 

Social mobility in England 2014 ...

England: „59 % of the Cabinet and 33 % of the Shadow Cabinet attended Oxbridge compared to less than 1 % of the UK population as a whole …“

Social Mobiliy and Child Poverty Commission (Hrsg.), „Elitist Britain“ (2014), S. 26

 

Britain’s success in expanding apprenticeship ...

„Britain’s success in expanding apprenticeship positions from about 150,000 in 2007 to over 850,000 in 2013 offers one example for how to create successful national and decentralized marketing initiatives.“

Univ.-Prof. Dr. Robert I. Lerman, „Expanding Apprenticeship Opportunities in the United States“ (2014), S. 4

 

Where support personnel is provided for every four teachers ...

„For Iceland, Alberta (Canada) and England (United Kingdom), support personnel is provided for every four teachers.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „TALIS 2013 Results“ (2014), S. 46

 

The most prevailing inequalities in educational achievement in England ...

„Perhaps the most prevailing inequalities in educational achievement in England are those associated with socio-economic status (SES), ethnicity and gender.“

Univ.-Prof. Dr. Steve Strand, „Ethnicity, gender, social class and achievement gaps at age 16“ (2014), S. 2

 

Achievement gaps at age 16 in England ...

England: „SES gaps (Anm.: SES = Socioeconomic status) widens over the course of secondary school with students in the bottom SES quintile making -.21 SD (Anm.: SD = standard deviation) less than expected progress and those in top quintile making .20 SD more than expected progress.“

Univ.-Prof. Dr. Steve Strand, „Ethnicity, gender, social class and achievement gaps at age 16“ (2014), S. 18

 

In England sind Migranten im Durchschnitt sogar besser ausgebildet als Einheimische ...

„In England sind Migranten im Durchschnitt sogar besser ausgebildet als Einheimische, was vor allem an der Komposition der Migrantenpopulation liegt.“

Dr. Jens Ruhose, „Bildungsleistungen von Migranten und deren Determinanten“, Teil II, in ifo-Schnelldienst 10/2013 (Mai 2013), S. 27

 

The correlation between disadvantage and poor academic attainment ...

„The correlation between disadvantage and poor academic attainment is particularly strong in the UK.“

Univ.-Prof. Dr. Timothy Besley u. a., „Investing for Prosperity: Skills, Infrastructure and Innovation“ in „National Institute Economic Review“, No. 224, Mai 2013, R6

 

In the United Kingdom, 40 % of beginning teachers abandon the profession in the first three years of service ...

„In the United Kingdom, 40 % of beginning teachers abandon the profession in the first three years of service.“

Univ.-Prof. Dr. Thierry Karsenti u.a., „Why are New Teachers Leaving the Profession? Results of a Canada-Wide Survey“. In: „International Journal of Education“, 3(3), 2013, S. 143

 

England: Teachers leaving the profession because of disruptive pupil behaviour ...

„In a recent survey of teachers in England, nearly 40 % of teachers of the 1000 questioned had considered leaving the profession because of disruptive pupil behaviour; and more than a fifth said they had developed mental health problems as a result.“

Dr. Qing Gu u.a., „Challenges to teacher resilience: conditions count“. In: „British Educational Research Journal“, Vol. 39, No. 1, Februar 2013, S. 23f

 

UK: One of the most socially segregated education systems ...

„The UK has one of the highest levels of variation in pupil outcomes and its education system is also one of the most socially segregated education systems amongst industrialised economies.“

Dr. Tracey Allen, Drivers and barriers to raising achievement“ (2013), S. 14

 

The U.S., the U.K., and Japan essentially keep their entire secondary education system comprehensive ...

„The U.S., the U.K., and Japan essentially keep their entire secondary education system comprehensive – although tracking within schools is common and on the rise in these countries.“

Univ.-Prof. Dr. Christian Dustmann u.a., „The Long-Term Effects of Early Track Choice“ (2013), S. 2

 

One major systemic failing in the UK education system is the ‘long tail’ of poorly performing schools and pupils compared with other countries ...

„One major systemic failing in the UK education system is the ‘long tail’ of poorly performing schools and pupils compared with other countries, particularly at the secondary level. A significant part of the explanation for this is the stubborn link between pupils’ socio-economic background and their educational attainment.“

LSE (Hrsg.), „Investing in Prosperity – LSE Growth Commission Report“ (2013), S. 16

 

In the United Kingdom, tuition fees doubled in some universities ...

„In the United Kingdom, tuition fees doubled – and nearly tripled in some universities – in 2012, as part of a government plan to stabilise university finances.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „Education at a Glance 2013. OECD Indicators“ (2013), S. 223

 

A child’s socio-economic status as predictor of attainment ...

„In England, a child’s socio-economic status is the best predictor of their educational attainment.“

Loic Menzies, Direktor des LKM Consulting, „Educational Aspirations: How English schools can work with parents to keep them on track“ (2013), S. 2

 

Parents’ socio-economic status as predictor ...

„In the UK, especially, parents’ socio-economic status continues to be the primary predictor of which children prosper in adult life.“

Univ.-Prof. Dr. Chris Pascal u.a., „The impact of early education as a strategy in countering socio-economic disadvantage“ (2013), S. 8

 

The UK remains at the bottom of international league tables for social mobility ...

„The UK remains at the bottom of international league tables for social mobility, as measured by income or earnings.“

Univ.-Prof. Dr. Chris Pascal u.a., „The impact of early education as a strategy in countering socio-economic disadvantage“ (2013), S. 8

 

Die Wirkung der Gesamtschule in England ...

„A quarter of children from poor backgrounds fail to meet the expected attainment level at the end of primary school compared with 3 per cent from affluent backgrounds. The gap widens at 16 with just one in five children from the poorest families achieving five good GCSEs, including English and Maths, compared with three quarters from the richest families.“

NCB (Hrsg.), „Greater Expectations: Raising aspirations for our children“ (2013), S. 12

 

Gesamtschulstaat England ...

„A child from a disadvantaged poor background is far less likely to do well at school age 11 and far less likely to do well in their GCSEs at 16 compared with a child from the most well-off backgrounds and there is no indication that this gap between advantaged and disadvantaged children is disappearing.“

NCB (Hrsg.), „Greater Expectations: Raising aspirations for our children“ (2013), S. 28

 

The recent results of the OECD’s survey of adult skills ...

„The recent results of the OECD’s survey of adult skills show that in England and Northern Ireland, parents’ educational attainment has a stronger-than-average impact on adults’ proficiency in both literacy and numeracy.“

NIACE (Hrsg.), „Family Learning Works“ (2013), S. 5

 

In the UK the socio-economic gap in education achievement widens throughout secondary education ...

„In the UK […] the socio-economic gap in education achievement widens throughout secondary education.“

Univ.-Prof. Dr. Giorgio Brunello u.a., „On the efficiency costs of de-tracking secondary schools in Europe“. In: „Education Economics“ Vol. 20, No. 2, Mai 2012, S. 118

 

In England, the relationship between social class and educational performance is particularly strong ...

„In England, the relationship between social class and educational performance is particularly strong, and we also have a higher than average degree of social segregation in our schools.“

Jonathan Clifton u.a., „Closing the Attainment Gap in England’s Secondary Schools“ (2012), S. 9

 

In England the impact of pupils’ socio-economic background is significantly higher than the OECD average ...

„In England the impact of pupils’ socio-economic background is significantly higher than the OECD average.“

Department for Education (Hrsg.), „PISA 2009: How does the social attainment gap in England compare with countries internationally?“ (2012), S. 1

 

Leistungsdifferenzierung in Englands Grundschulen ...

 

„Recent research based on 8875 children in the Millennium Cohort Study showed that 25.8 % of children in Year 2 were set for literacy and mathematics and a further 11.2 % of children were set for mathematics or literacy alone.“

Univ.-Prof. Dr. Susan Hallam u.a., „The incidence and make up of ability grouped sets in the UK primary school“. In: „Research Papers in Education“ (2012), S. 1

 

Chinese pupils usually perform better ...

England: „Chinese pupils usually perform better than White British pupils and this is probably mainly because of their extremely positive attitudes to education and intense effort in home work.“

Univ.-Prof. Dr. Cheti Nicoletti u. a., „Productivity of school expenditure: Differences across pupils from diverse backgrounds“ (2012), S. 18f

 

The association between family background and high educational achievement is stronger in England ...

„The association between family background and high educational achievement is stronger in England than in most other developed countries.“

Dr. John Jerrim, „The Socio-Economic Gradient in Teenagers’ Reading Skills: How Does England Compare with Other Countries?“ in „Fiscal Studies“, 2012, vol. 33, no. 2, S. 160


Temporäre Schulausschlüsse in Englands Schulen häufig ...

Temporäre Schulausschlüsse in Englands Schulen häufig:

„In 2009/10, there were 279,260 fixed period exclusions from state funded secondary schools, 8.59 % of the state-funded secondary school population (of which 28,440 were from Academies, 14.72 % of the academy population).“

Department for Education (Hrsg.), „Pupil behaviour in schools in England“ (2012), S. 49

 

Gründe für unbefristete Schulausschlüsse in Englands öffentlichem Schulwesen ...

„The most common reason recorded for permanent exclusion in all state funded schools in 2009/10 was persistent disruptive behaviour (29.0 %). The second most common reason was physical assault against a pupil at 17.1 %“

Department for Education (Hrsg.), „Pupil behaviour in schools in England“ (2012), S. 50

 

Nicht wenige Kinder mit sonderpädagogischem Bedarf werden aus Englands „inklusivem“ Schulwesen ausgeschlossen ...

„Pupils with a statement of Special Educational Needs (SEN) were around eight times more likely to receive a permanent exclusion than pupils with no SEN, and were nine times more likely to receive a fixed period exclusion.“

Department for Education (Hrsg.), „Pupil behaviour in schools in England“ (2012), S. 51

 

Only in four countries are primary schools allowed to be selective academically ...

„Only in four countries (Czech Republic, England, Estonia and Finland) are primary schools allowed to be selective academically.“

OECD (Hrsg.), „School Choice and Equity“ (2012), S. 15

 

Education enrolment rates for 15-19 year olds in the UK are currently well below the OECD average ...

„Education enrolment rates for 15-19 year olds in the UK are currently well below the OECD average (69.7 % in the UK versus 81.5 % OECD average) and a comparatively large share of 25-34 year olds have not completed upper secondary education.“

Dr. Kathryn Duckworth, „Beating the odds: Impact of the economic recession on young people in the UK“ (2011), S. 1

 

In Australia, Canada and the UK, the share of the foreign-born population with high education exceeds the share of the native-born population with high education ...

„In Australia, Canada and the UK, the share of the foreign-born population with high education exceeds the share of the native-born population with high education by 5.5 percentage points, 7.3 percentage points and 16.1 percentage points, respectively.“

Univ.-Prof. Dr. Christian Dustmann u.a., „Migration and Education“ (2011), S. 9

 

Selbst in Ländern, die offiziell ein Einheitsschulsystem haben, gibt es für die Privilegierten separate Bildungswege ...

„In kaum einem Land gehen die Schüler, unabhängig von Herkunft und Leistung, alle auf eine gemeinsame Schule. Selbst in Ländern, die offiziell ein Einheitsschulsystem haben, gibt es für die Privilegierten separate Bildungswege. In Frankreich sind es die katholischen Lyzeen, in England die Internate, in den USA die teuren Privatschulen oder öffentliche Schulen in sozial privilegierten Vierteln.“

Univ.-Prof. Dr. Elmar Tenorth, Die Zeit vom 17. Juni 2010

 

England: The children of educated or wealthy parents and children of worse off parents ...

England: „The children of educated or wealthy parents who scored poorly in the early tests (Anm.: Intelligenztests mit 22 Monaten), had a tendency to catch up whereas children of worse off parents who scored poorly were extremely unlikely to catch up and are clearly shown to be an at-risk group.“

Univ.-Prof. Dr. Leon Feinstein, „Inequality in the early cognitive development of British children in the 1970 Cohort“ (2010), Abstract

 

England: Parents are prepared to pay significant sums of money ...

England: „Parents are prepared to pay significant sums of money to buy a house located near to better performing primary schools, even before their children reach school starting age.“

Dr. Kirstine Hansen, „Demand for School Quality in the Pre-School Years“ (2010), S. 1